The Peloponnesian War is recorded that lasted through 431–404 BC.
The truth is that the two parts, Athenians and Spartans, forgot to sign a peace treaty ! So it typically lasted since…. 1996. 2427 years!
It was only 4 years before the 21st century when Greeks realized that there wasn;t such a treaty. So the two mayors signed one in a wealthy ceremony.
Together we stand… divided we fall
The first dangerous signs of disunity emerged between the two cities that had offered and most to address the Persian risk, Athens and Sparta. This multi-faceted conflict between the two cities and the war that followed between them reminds him in a miraculous way Thucydides, an Athenian citizen who also took the same place as a general in the war operations.
The rivalry between Athens and Sparta manifested itself immediately, after the naval battle of Mycali in 479 BC., when the issue of protecting the cities of Ionia had to be solved. Sparta, a predominantly continental force, was unable to participate in overseas adventures, and insulted the Ionians to leave their cities and settle in the mainland. The rival awe, however, that Athens possessed the mighty triremes and secured sovereignty in the eastern Aegean, offered to protect the Ionians.
Around this naval dominance Athens will establish itself in the winter of 477 BC. the Alliance of Delos, the aim of which was to protect the cities of Ionia from the Persians. All the cities of Ionia, all the islands from Lesvos to Rhodes, most of the cities of Propontida and Chalkidiki, the Cyclades and Evia joined this alliance. Aristeidis, on behalf of the Athenians, determined the conditions for participation, the most important one of which involved the cash contribution to a common fund set up in Delos.
Gradually, an intense Athenian hegemonism began to emerge, which was more of a burden on allied cities than protection. An expression of the despotic behavior of Athens is also the transfer of the Allied treasury from Delos to Athens in 454 BC. and his dedication from Apollo to Athena. The consequence of this hegemonism was the demotion of many cities under full subordination, as well as their obligation to assign their litigation to the Athenian courts.
So gradually began to manifest some reactions from the allied cities with apostasies, such as Naxos in 469 BC. and Thassos in 465 BC, which in many cases were instigated by Sparta, who led the Peloponnesian alliance.
The peloponnesian war I
The First Peloponnesian War, or the Small Peloponnesian War between the Athenian and the Peloponnesian Alliance was the preamble of the Peloponnesian War and lasted for fifteen years.
The First Peloponnesian War began in 459 BC. with the battle of Oinoi. The battle of Oinoi ended with the victory of the Arges and the Athenians. It was the first time that the Spartans were struggling with the corpse. In the same year, the Athenians sent an expeditionary body to help the rebellion of Inara. So they sent 200 triremes. The Persian king Artaxerxes, seeing the criticality of the situation, created an army of 300,000 men. The Persian army collided with the Athenian and was defeated by a state in the Nile region, in Poppiri.
The Persian army fled and left many dead on the battlefield. The rebels then began the siege of the White Wall, in Memphis, to which the defeated Persians (459 BC) had resorted. Artaxerxes decided that since he could not win the Athenians, he would be distracted. So the Persian king came in contact with the Spartans asking them to invade Attica. But the Spartans refused because there was still the climate of the Persian Wars.
Corinth and Megara had some problems in the border areas and Megara joined the Peloponnese in the Athenian alliance. The Athenians rushed to fortify them. In this way the Athenians would protect Attica from Peloponnesian raids. Athens collided with Corinth in the Allies, where the Corinthians, although defeated, killed very few Athenians. Immediately afterwards the Athenians clashed with the Peloponnesian fleet in Kekryfthalia, where they defeated (459/8 BC).
In 455 BC, Pericles took 50 ships and started his own campaign. He attacked Sikyon, where he won the inhabitants of Nemea. Then, he sailed to Achaia and landed in Akarnania and occupied all the incanarian cities outside the Oiniades. In 454 BC., the Athenians became entangled in the things of the Thessalians, but they did nothing. The campaigns of Tolidis and Pericles increased the influence of the Athenians in Messinia and the Corinthian Gulf. But the situation would change radically.
In 461 BC, the Athenians exiled Kimon, but Pericles called him back in 451 BC. to make peace with Sparta. Kimonas then headed for Sparta and concluded a five-year peace.
In 448 BC, the Spartans exiled to Delphi and Chaeroneia. Many cities have acquired oligarchic rule. The Athenians voted a campaign against the Thebans with their leader Tolmidis. Tolmidis in 447 BC lost in a battle in Coronie where he died. Evoia defeated after the defeat of Athens. Pericles then committed peace with the Spartans in 445 BC. called the Thirty Years’ Lamentations. This peace would last for 30 years, but it did not last for more than 15 years.
The peloponnesian war II
In the spring of 430 BC, Athens received an unexpected hit – the plague of Athens. It was a typhoid fever, which literally decimated the city in about five years, according to recent studies. In 429 BC. Pericles died.
In 411 BC, the military failures of the democratic forces provoked an oligarchic coup in Athens, whereby the so-called House of Fours, consisting only of oligarchs, undertook the control of the city.
The new war with the Spartans had already begun with a claim to the countryside in Dhekelia. Later, Sparta was defeated in Arginousse in 406 BC. and the war was shifted to the North Aegean. In 405 BC, the Spartan Lysander in Aegos Potamos, in the Hellespont, captured all the Athenian ships with a clever strategic trick (except for 12 who fled to Cyprus), which contributed to the total defeat of the Athenians. After that, the Sparta fleet blocked Athens from the sea and, through the fortified Dhekelia, from the land. The siege was exhausted by the Athenians who, in 404 BC, surrendered and asked for peace.
The Spartans convened a conference in Sparta to decide on the conclusion of peace. The allies of Sparta have demanded that Athens and all its inhabitants become fully slaves. The Spartans, however, showing magnanimity and considering the offer of Athens during the Persian Wars refused to destroy it and enslave the inhabitants and accepted to conclude peace
But they forgot it….