Psychology has a long past but a short history.
“Personality is an unbroken series of successful gestures” (F. Scott Fitzgerald)
Among our ancestors, those who paid attention to people and understood how they functioned could better navigate their social world. These talented observers of people were a little bit better at predicting who would make a good ally, who to dig a well with, who would be a good mate, and who to avoid whenever possible.
Body Language: A truly powerful concept that seems to contribute to a successful understanding of the personality of people around us. This, of course, applies only if the observer can decode the signals and the attitude of the body properly, matching them up with the things that are said, the time, the age, the gender, and the background of each individual.
Body language: A language that is different from all the other languages. It’s a language with no words. It’s a magical way of expression! It’s an ability to read the mood and thoughts of others. It’s a type of communication between people without the slightest use of speech…
Learn how to “read” other people without these people saying any words. Get to know the people around you better and, then, observe them carefully. These people have a lot of things to say without even talking. Further below, you will be able to understand body language better so that you can draw conclusions about opinions, wills, beliefs and the ultimate personality of the people around you.
How we communicate with others?
Being able to communicate effectively is the most important of all life skills. Developing your communication skills can help all aspects of your life, from your professional life to social gatherings and everything in between. The ability to communicate information accurately, clearly and as intended, is a vital life skill and something that should not be overlooked. It’s never too late to work on your communication skills and by doing so improve your quality of life.
However, what is communication?
Communication an essential element of life, not only for the human being but also for other beings on the planet. Without communication, it is not possible to survive on the earth. It is important that communication is perceived in various forms and levels. Communication is the act of expressing (or transmitting) ideas, information, knowledge, thoughts, and feelings, as well as understanding what is expressed by others. The communication process involves both sending and receiving messages and can take many forms. The two most important types of communication are:
- Verbal communication;
- Non-verbal communication
“You cant photoshop personality” (Unknown said)
What is verbal communication?
Verbal communication encompasses any form of communication involving words, spoken, written or signed. The conversation we have with our coworker at lunch, the morning news or the sports page we read in the morning – even the text message you send to your spouse telling him to pick up some milk is a form of verbal communication. Our ability to communicate with a language that is based on an organized system of words, rather than merely sounds, is what sets us apart from lower species. Not only do we have language, but we also have the technology that enables us to communicate with one another no matter the physical distance.
When asking “what is the most powerful form of communication among people”, the answer that prevails is usually: “the verbal form of communication The majority of people still believe that the individuals express themselves and communicate better through words and through speech. From the very first years of his life, the individual learns how to communicate through the verbal form of communication, through speech, in order to be able to survive in a society and be a member of this society. Through the acoustic form of communication, thoughts, views and ideas are conveyed in order to transpose a concept with its main characteristic, the speech.
However, let’s not forget that things are not always as they look. Many times people respond with “yes”, but they actually mean “no”. They say “it does not matter”, but deep inside they have been hurt. Is it possible to perceive this false answer? Can an individual understand if words coincide with thoughts?
We all have perceived at some point in our lives that people say things they do not believe and they do not feel. They hide behind their words and sayings, they project a personality which is not their real self either to deceive other people and protect themselves, or to impress, and, most of the time, to convince other people.
Ιs there, though, a way to discover the truth about the personality of people around us? Can we understand when a person is lying, is feeling uncomfortable, is introverted, or is hiding something from us?
Lisa Prosen once said, “If you want to know what one’s hiding in his mind, pay attention to his words and sayings. If you want to know what he is hiding in his heart, watch his moves.” What does she mean by saying that?
So, we use verbal communication to inform, whether it is to inform others of our needs or to impart knowledge. Verbal communication helps to clarify misunderstandings and provides missing information. We can use verbal communication to correct a mistake, something that was said or done. The power of the words, “I’m sorry,” is often more effective than an action. Verbal communication can also be used as a tool of persuasion. It creates an opportunity for debate, stimulates thought and creativity, and deepens and creates new relationships.
Robert M. Krauss in the article, “The Psychology of Verbal Communication,” published in the International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences in 2002, explains, “A species’ survival depends critically upon its ability to communicate effectively, and the quality of its social life is determined in large measure by how and what it can communicate.”
“No one can know for sure what you think, but see what you do” (Menandros)
Nonverbal form of communication
The answer may probably be found only in the nonverbal form of communication. More elements and factors are probably required in order to discover an individual’s personality. If the lie may be expressed through words, then, the truth may be hidden in the movement, in the way of visual contact, in the attitude of the body or even in the tone of the voice.
Thus, the secret that will lead to the assessment of each personality is the understanding of some automatic bodily features during interaction with other people in order to collect useful information before they even open their mouth to speak. These automated features are part of the nonverbal communication code.
Therefore, we communicate with much more than words: when we interact with someone, our body has a language of its own. The way we sit, the gestures we make, the way we talk, how much eye contact we make – all of these are non-verbal ways of communicating that impact the messages our words are sending.
What exactly does that mean? In simple words: “learn to listen through your eyes!”
Edward G. Wertheim, Ph.D., in his paper, “The Importance of Effective Communication,” details how nonverbal communication interacts with verbal communication. We can reinforce, contradict, substitute, complement or emphasize our verbal communication with nonverbal cues such as gestures, expressions and vocal inflection. Avoiding eye contact when we tell someone something communicates something far different than do spoken words, just as a bright smile when we say congratulations reinforces the sincerity of our words.
“An ugly personality destroys a pretty face.” (Unknown said)
What is Body Language?
Body Language: It’s “speaking through my body”. This term has much more features than the terms we originally thought there were. All of us have been found in moments in which we believed other things, we wanted other things and we finally said other things. We act this way in order to hide, or not to hurt other people, or because we have put our desires or wishes after other people’s desires or wishes. In this case, we refer to nonverbal ways of communication and that is what we mean by referring to messages sent without the use of written and spoken language
Nonverbal communication and body language include the following:
- the facial expressions;
- the physical contact;
- the body posture, and
- the tone of voice.
So, put simply, body language is the unspoken element of communication that we use to reveal our true feelings and emotions; by body language we refer to our gestures, our facial expressions our tone of voice and our posture, for instance. When we are able to “read” these signs, we can use it to our advantage. For example, it can help us to understand the complete message of what someone is trying to say to us, and to enhance our awareness of people’s reactions to what we say and do. We can also use it to adjust our own body language so that we appear more positive, engaging and approachable.
The facial expressions
Facial expressions are believed to reveal a person’s current emotion and motives. According to folklore, the eyes are ‘‘a window to the soul’’ or a ‘‘mirror of the soul’’. The eye expressions may be influenced by a smiling or an angry or a sad mouth. Thus, they can reveal any secret.
A wide, toothy smile, where all the facial muscles, including those of the eyes, are in tension, reveal a joyful, extrovert and positive personality.
A steady gaze reflects a confident, poised, authentic individual, who is not shy or introverted, who has nothing to hide; it reflects an individual who receptive and open to human contact.
The physical contact
A step towards people we talk to, a hug, a hand shaking reveal a generous, cheerful individual, a person with a firm and strong personality.
A specific distance from your interlocutors during a meeting may show respect, but it may be a threat as well. In fact, according to research, the closer and more comfortable you feel to a person, the more your body movements look alike.
The body posture
An upright posture, unbent shoulders, relaxed arms and legs may show an outgoing, confident personality; however, arms crossed and a drooping posture may be a signal of defensiveness and resistance and are a sign of discomfort, insecurity and weakness.
As in the animal world, in the nature of human beings, there are certain gestures which are typical for indicating a sexual interest or attraction.
An individual who has something to hide is uncertain and cautious. Hands to the forehead, or on the lips, or covering the mouth may be indicative that this individual has something to hide as these gestures show that what has been said is a lie as touching the mouth is associated with deception and fear that the truth may be revealed. The individual does not have an upright posture, changing his or her position quickly and all the time, having his or her head retracted or jerked back or bowed down or cocked or titled to the side, and distracts the attention of the person he or she is talking to from the truth. He or she puts his or her hands behind this or her back or in the pockets in order to avoid revealing his stress and anxiety.
The tone of voice
The messages that you send with your voice are known as paralanguage. Often it is not what you say but how you say it that determines an interaction’s outcome.
The tone of your voice can help you communicate what you mean to convey, or it can reveal thoughts you mean to conceal. It can reinforce or negate the words you speak. The sound of your voice communicates, revealing to others your emotional state, attitudes, personality, status, and interaction maintenance, or turn-taking, needs. How you speak influences how others interpret your intentions, as well as how credible, intelligent, or attractive they judge you to be.
Thus, the main features of the voice are:
- the tone of voice and the voice quality;
- the volume of the voice (the power of your voice, its loudness or volume);
- the rhythm of the voice;
- the pauses as the individual speaks;
- speech speed;
- the pitch (the highness or lowness of the voice); and
- the breaths this individual takes as he or she speaks.
Depending on the individual’s state of mind and psychological state, these features may change. So, for example, someone who has something to hide has a higher volume, he or she speaks quickly; his or her breathing is slower and he or she makes many pauses. An individual who is typically loud may alienate others; such a person is often viewed as overbearing, nervous or aggressive. In contrast, if you are soft-spoken, others may interpret your behaviour as timid or they may think that we have something to hide from them. In addition, typically, we increase volume to stress particular words and ideas and to reflect the intensity of our emotions. Similarly, a sudden decrease in volume can add suspense or sustain another’s attention. So, we should point out that volume that is varied is most effective. As for the rate of the speech, in many ways, rate reflects the pulse of your words. It quickens to indicate agitation, excitement, and happiness, and it falls to convey seriousness, serenity, or sadness. In addition to slowing or increasing the rate of speech and emphasizing key ideas, brief periods of silence or pauses give us a chance to gather our thoughts.
In other words, we should point out that nonverbal or para-verbal communication can be deciphered by paying more attention to the following voice features:
- the tone of voice: increasing tones express a dose of safety while decreasing inflections show insecurity;
- the pauses between words and phrases: both transmit clues about the speaker’s intentions and attitudes;
- the speech speed may be slow or fast; it is worth saying that a fast paced speech may show that the speaker is unsure and He or she knows what he or she wants to say but he or she’s talking fast because he or she wants to get rid of the words as he or she does not feel comfortable when speaking. While an average pace expressessafety, the speaker knows that what has to say is just as important to everyone as it is for him or her. A slow pace is not desirable because it gives the impression of low intelligence as well;
- the voice volume shows speakers’ authority, the individual’s power of persuasion and the ability to be listened to; and
- other sounds (onomatopoeia, moan, scream, grunt, sigh, laugh) are designed to complement the verbal message where moods are too strong or words are lacking for the moment.
At this point, we should consider the social environment and the background; It is quite common that the tone of voice differs between people of different cultures.
“Appearances make impressions but it is the personality that makes an impact.” (Unknown said)
Research carried out on body language and personality
For more than 75 years psychologists have studied how subtle nonverbal cues might reveal your personality. In 1933, the well-known psychologist Gordon Allport and the author Phillip Vernon contended that there was consistency in people’s expressive behaviour, and that from these nonverbal cues, personality could be discerned. However, in their research, they pointed out that this does not apply to all expressive movements, but for some it simply gives a sample of the direction of the personality.
For example, while the main features of extroversion/introversion can be accurately distinguished through nonverbal behaviour, at the levels of stereotypes and biases, personality is not so obvious, but, after a long-term observation, we get certain elements of this personality. In addition, some people show expansive movements, such as gesturing wildly, while others are more restricted and closed-off. This might suggest differences between extroverts (who are expansive and outgoing) and introverts ( who tend to “keep to themselves”).
According to Dr. Albert Mehrabian’s research (1960) which has been carried out at the University of Los Angeles as well as according to the communication spectalist’s, Mr. Thanassis Papamichail, research (2009), the meaning of a message is communicated by:
- Your words 7% (verbal communication),
- Your tone of voice 38%, and
- Your body language 55%.
That means that the numbers represent the percentages of importance that varying communication channels have. The belief is that 55% of communication is body language, 38% is the tone of voice, and 7% is the actual words spoken.
This statistic is, of course, just a sample and it certainly does not cover the whole range of cases. Thus, in the example of a liar, research has revealed that not only body language is sufficient to identify the liar, but it always stands in tune with both the tone of voice and the verbal communication. Usually, the liar speaks to a high and unstable tone of voice, he is not accurate as he talks to others and he repeats his sayings in order to convince. So, the conclusion was that nonverbal communication stands for 93% of all communication.
“Your body communicates as well as your mouth. Don’t contradict yourself.” (Allen Ruddock said)
It is therefore concluded that that understanding the body language is not always an easy task as it requires practice, accurate observation, concurrence of various signals emitted by the body, experience and usually long-term verification of the conclusions.
According to the American psychologist Paul Ekman and the psychologist Michael Argyle who deal with the different aspect of body language, nonverbal communications is a kind of language. In fact, they pointy out “We cannot interpret an individual gesture or a movement, unless we do that in concurrence with the general context and the other expressions of verbal and nonverbal communication. Usually the concurrence of the four aspects of communication is necessary. A movement can happen accidentally. A second one can make us be suspicious. But if we encounter four movements that concur, the margin of error is eliminated as the random case of consecutive coincidences.”
Have you ever thought how much time we talk on a daily basis and if this issue makes us think that body language is stronger than verbal communication? The anthropologist Ray L. Birdwhistell was an expert in kinesics, the part of nonverbal communication that deals with postures of the body and movements of various parts of the body that play a role in communicating, particularly while people are speaking. Anthropologist He concluded that the average person speaks words for a total of about 10-11 minutes per day and he also estimated that the average sentence takes 2.5 seconds. In addition, he found out that the verbal component of a face-to-face conversation is less than 35% and that over 65% of communication is done nonverbally.. Birdwhistell also estimated we can make and recognize around 250,000 facial expressions.
According to research that has been carried out, women use an innate ability that uses 14-16 parts of the brain, the so-called “women’s intuition”. So, women are far more perceptive than men, and this has given rise to what is commonly referred to as “women’s intuition.” Women have an innate ability to pick up and decipher nonverbal signals, as well as having an accurate eye for small details. This ability is particularly evident in women who have raised children, especially during the first years when they have to communicate with their children through nonverbal speech by developing this ability. On the contrary, men have only 4-6 parts of the brain that are developed.
Nevertheless, that does not mean that someone cannot be more vigilant and observant and be able to understand the person he or she is talking to, since body language is universal. There are specific movements, expressions and postures of the body that are representative of some aspects of an individual’s personality.
“Body language is more powerful than words.” (Ricky Gervais said)
There are some rules, below, that are essential and necessary in order to read and understand each individual’s body language and personality.
- The significance of a number of movements is mainly determined by the different cultures;
- The interpretation of the different movements should be made in concurrence with other expressions as well as with the given living conditions;
- Body language functions just like all the other languages,
- using words, sentences and punctuation,
- while each movement corresponds to a word that may have different meanings/interpretations
- Body language is always compared with the verbal communication,
- Body language may help
- At the professional level, since research shows that most of communication consist of body language and the effectiveness of professional life depends on how a person communicates through his or her body language,
- At the personal level, since it can give away an enormous amount of information about a situation a person may be in and just from the way you stand or more obviously your facial expression people can tell how you are feeling and what you may be thinking,
- In everyday human contact,
- In order to express stronger feelings or emphasize what you have just said or you are saying,
- In order to understand the people you are talking to or those who are talking to you.
“Women’s body language speaks eloquently, through silently, of her subordinate status in a hierarchy of gender.” (Sandra Bartky said)
What does your body language say about your personality?
As already mentioned, our body language can say a lot about our attitude, feelings, and character.
Here is an indicative list of the most obvious and clear features corresponding to specific personalities:
|Women/men||Stomach pulled in tight, chest stuck out, straight back, head held high, shoulders pulled back||Poised, self-confident, sense of power, sense of excellence|
|Women/men||Fetal position, closed posture, head pointing down||Lacking self-confidence, insecure, defensive, vulnerable, feel intimidated, feel threatened|
|Women/men||Head pointing down, shoulders hunched||Feeling rushed, feeling bowed down, oppressed|
|Women/men||Back bent forward and a weak or concave chest||Lack of self-identity, shyness, emotional timidity, introversion; this posture indicates a depressed, disappointed, sad or helpless attitude|
|Women||Curled up body, chest pulled back/withdrawn, arms crossed in order to cover the body, folded legs||Feeling insecure as regards your body|
|Women/men||Walk in a self-confident manner; bouncy walk||Poised, self-confident, sense of power, sense of excellence|
|Men/women||Chest and abdomen exposed||Cool, easy-going, unreserved people; people who are themselves; people who have nothing to hide; sincere people|
|Women/men||Open legs, not crossed||Receptive attitude or bossy/domineering attitude|
|Women/men||Closed and crossed legs||Reticence; reserve; uncertainty; ambivalence|
|Women/men||Fists clenched in front of the body||Reserved people; anxious people; negative attitude|
|Women/men||Arms outstretched with the palms facing downwards||Certainty|
|Women/men||Arms outstretched with the palms facing upwards||Sincere people|
|Women/men||Arms and palms behind the back, in the pockets, etc, touching the nose, rubbing the eye||People who hide something; people who lie|
|Women/men||Arms crossed on chest||Putting a barrier, blocking others out; defensive attitude; Effort to protect yourself; retaliation; indifference; uncertainty; nervousness, anxiety; feeling cold; closing yourself off defensively; blocking any channel of communication|
|Women/men||Sitting with your hands behind your head||Being cool, self-confident; people who feel superior or overconfident; feeling dominant, superior and confident; a signal of satisfaction at a job well done|
|Women/men||person having his hands behind his head with elbows spread out||Feeling relaxed; feeling superior; winner’s attitude; feeling justified; feeling liberated|
|Women/men||person sitting and the index finger points vertically up the cheek, another finger is in front of the mouth and the thumb supports the chin||having negative or critical thoughts about the speaker or his subject; feeling hostility, aggression, dislike, disapproval|
|Women/men||Person standing and resting his hands on the waist or on the hips||aggression; controlling attitude; nervousness, anxiety; irritation, annoyance; Irony; Feeling successful but also feeling relaxed|
|Men||Person standing in a straight posture; the hands are in the pockets and the thumbs are visible, over the genitals.
|the visible thumbs indicate dominance and sovereignty. This gesture is a common sign that someone feels comfortable. It may also indicate low status, if the thumb disappears in the pocket. Gestures showing a low status should be to be avoided – especially by persons in executive positions. physical desire, sexual attraction|
|Women/men||Standing in a straight posture; head high; arms behind the back||self-confidence; strength|
|Women||Sitting; arms and legs crossed||nervousness; defensive attitude; humbleness, modesty|
|Women/men||wrinkles/crow’s feet; upward pressure on the cheeks; the muscles around the eyes are contracted and the lip corners are pulled up||feeling glad; feeling happy|
|Women/men||Eyebrows raised, eyes wide open, open mouth||the person is surprised; the more the surprise, the higher the eyebrows are raised. Raising eyebrows may be a submissive move or indicate openness. Raising a single eyebrow may show arrogance, irony, cynicism or even that a person is puzzled.|
|Women/men||Frowned person with raised eyebrows; upper eyelids raised; lower eyelids tight retracted; lips retracted||fear; embarrassment, awkwardness.|
|Women/men||Lowered eyebrows of a frowned person; Angry look in the eyes; lips turned down||sad, distressed, upset, unhappy; sign of being defeated and weak|
|Women/men||One half of the upper lip tightens upward (known as a smirk); neutral eyes with one side of the lip turned up and pulled back (almost like a half-smile)||contempt|
|Women/men||Neck scratch and collar pull||a sign of lying, discomfort; not feeling comfortable|
|Women/men||Head pointing down, while simultaneously twisting the head to the right side||Being shy; being embarrassed; being puzzled|
|Women/men||Eye pupils dilated; wide opened dilated eyes||Positive and receptive attitude; being attracted by someone or something; approving something|
|Women/men||Eye pupils contracted||Rejection; resentment, disapproval|
|Women/men||Keeping your distance from the person you are talking to, stepping back when someone gets closer||Being reserved; being introverted; this person needs space|
|Women/men||Moving arms, legs and body||Anxiety; unease; stress; uncertainty|
|Women/men||Arms crossed||defensive attitude|
|Women/men||Raising eyebrows||emphasizing your sayings|
|Women/men||Moving your hands with palms facing down||fear of being verbally attacked|
|Women/men||Intensity in tone of voice; steady tone of voice; normal rhythm of voice||sensitive people; emotional people|
|Women/men||Hands put somewhere||seeking for reassurance, stability|
|Women/men||Hands being clenched in a fist||committed, strong-willed, determined, confident people|
|Women/men||Eyes blinking fast||uncertainty, nervousness and stress|
|Women/men||Thumb and index finger together while other fingers bent in the palm||emphasis on precision and detail|
|Women/men||Open gestures, torso exposed||honest, plain-dealing, sincere and approachable people|
|Women/men||Shy smile, downcast eyes, moving hair behind the ears||shy or flattered people|
|Women/men||Hands on the hips, open legs||motivated, assertive, determined, self-confident people|
|Women/men||Nervous movements||embarrassment, nervousness, anxiety|
|Women/Men||Raising the arms or pushing out the torso; Popping the chin up; jutting the chin out||triumph expressions: expansion, winning and dominance; arrogance|
|Women/men||Right hand holding the head.||boredom; lack of interest|
|Women/men||Right hand holding the head with the index finger in front of the mouth: a closed hand is resting on the cheek, often with the index finger pointing upwards.||it’s a “being interested” gesture; interested evaluation is also shown by this gesture too|
|Women/men||Raising the shoulders, eyebrows going up briefly and open palms||there is nothing to hide, they know nothing, they give in; submissive gestures|
|Women/men||Firm handshake||a firm handshake shows confidence and strength; it indicates that you are interested in building rapport with a person|
|Women/men||Open palm||submission, honesty, saying the truth, showing that you agree with the sayings or the actions of others|
|Women/men||Palm turned downwards||gesture showing power; hierarchy|
|Women/men||Hand holding or hand shaking where you offer your hand with the palm facing upwards and the first person’s palm is facing downwards||the palm down thrust is certainly the most aggressive handshake or handholding style as it gives the receiver the little chance of establishing an equal relationship.|
|Women/Men||Hand holding or hand shaking where the receiver’s palm is facing upwards||the palm up gesture is used to show submission to others to offer your hand with the palm facing upwards. This is particularly effective when you want to give the other person control or allow him to feel that he is in command of the situation.|
|Women/men||The palm in a fist and the index finger||threat, attack, negative feelings|
|Pulling the right side cheek and lip upwards.||liars|
|Tight-lipped smile||this smile is not so much used by liars as by people who have secrets or are withholding their true opinion or attitude towards something.|
|Distorted or uneven smile; lop-sided smile||type of smile that can be displayed only deliberately; the smile shows opposite emotions on each side of the face; it shows sarcasm too|
|Smirk; head bent and turned towards another direction, gaze raised||playful, sneaky, cunning people|
|Crossed hands clenched in fists||hostile, aggressive attitude|
|Rubbing hands together||sign of positive expectation|
|Women||Both hands touching the chin and the palms are facing downwards||Showing the face|
|Showing the thumb, while the rest of the hand is in the pockets||Self-confidence, bossiness|
|Stroking the chin||a signal that the person is thinking hard. They may well be judging or evaluating something, particularly if the conversation has offered them a choice or decision to make.|
Body language over the years
Body language is not a recent scientific phenomenon. Ancient Greek philosophers, such as Aristotle, Plato, Thalis, Socrates, and others were trying to stand up at a point with their hands covered under their tunics so they did not give body signals to their audience because they believed that the more physical movement a man had, and the stronger they talked with their bodies, the more “poor” their vocabulary and the less convincing they were. Philosophers and scientists have connected human physical behaviour with mood and personality for thousands of years, but only in living memory has the study of body language become as sophisticated and detailed as it is today. Hippocrates and Aristotle considered the aspects of body language probably through their interest in human personality and behaviour and Cicero related gestures to feelings and communications. Francis Bacon (1605) explored gestures as a reflection or extension of spoken communications. Darwin could be regarded as the earliest expert to have made serious scientific observation about body language.
Let us not forget that, from the day of the individual’s birth, the first means of communication that man uses is his body. Later on, the individual learns the use of speech and, depending on the vocabulary’s breadth and clarity, the individual uses the body language accordingly. In simple terms, the clearer the reason is, the less the need for expression through the body becomes. It is certain, however, that it is impossible to completely part with it. This means that body language has always existed and is necessary for the expression of mood and thoughts.
If we go back in time, we will find out that the human being began using speech about 2,000,000 and 500,000 years ago. Before that, body language was the main way of communicating and expressing emotions. It is worth pointing out that body language has been perceived relatively recently, in the 1960s. However, the reason why it has not been so intensively studied is because the individual focuses more on verbal communication. The researchers have noticed that individuals form an opinion about another individual much before this person even speaks to them.
Charles Darwin’s book “The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals”, 114 years ago, and Albert Mehrabian’s work, in 1971, have been highly inﬂuential for research on emotions and emotion expression and researchers throughout the world have discovered and recorded more than 1.000.000 non-verbal means of communication, referring to more than 1.000.000 body language signs.
“We are what we seem to be, not what we are saying” (Darwin said)
Body language at work
Too many people underestimate the value of body language in business. This is a big mistake. First impressions absolutely matter, and by being mindful of the right body language, you can make the right gestures and movements that will help you get any meeting or interview off to a positive start. Although verbal communication helps to get things done in the world of work, you should not forget the importance of nonverbal communication and the way body language can help lay the foundation for you to deliver a specific message or statement of intent. Whenever you meet potential customers or employers for the first time, it can be all too easy to focus firmly on what’s coming out of your mouth. It’s not uncommon to use all your mental energy to concentrate on adequately conveying your words, but what’s also really important is to think simultaneously about what your body is doing. Body language is the most reliable source of human communication and the most reliable tool in order to understand personality, especially in the field of marketing, where the main goal is the promotion and sale of products. As mentioned by Ribbens & Thompson, (2001) “The importance of body language in management has not been appreciated as it should have been. The reasons for both the success and the failure of managers should be sought in the latent world of non-verbal communication.”
It is said that, these days, politicians may understand the importance of body language and that this particular field of work is based mainly on image and movement, always accompanied by speech. So, politicians need to know how to expertly speak in two languages — verbal language and body language. For aspiring politicians, knowing how to engage and reach the masses with their ideas and beliefs is essential. But knowing what to say is just as important as how to say it. For this reason, great politicians use personal body language advisors in order to use all the components of communication properly.
In advertising or in theatrical shows, the actor has to use body language properly in order to be convincing, realistic-looking as well as to lure the audience into the atmosphere of the play.
In general, body language plays an important role in the workplace, because it determines success or failure at the communication level. Body language plays a significant role in interrogations. The interrogator violates the intimate zone of the accused by pressing him to confess. Depending on the personality of the suspect, the suspect tells the truth sooner or later.
Having the things we referred to earlier in mind, let’s look at some of the simple, yet highly effective body language techniques, you can adopt to build immediate rapport with individuals and groups of people at work without even having to open your mouth:
- Focus on your posture
Before you sit down to talk business or your future career with an individual or group of people, the first thing they will recognize is the way you carry yourself. Your posture is very important in terms of demonstrating confidence. Make sure you stand up straight–no slouching!–with your shoulders back and chest out. A forthright, positive posture will also put you in the right frame of mind when it comes to what you say.
- What about smiling?
Your facial expression can also help to set the tone of any business meeting. In order to make a counterpart or colleague feel at ease and in order to establish an immediate rapport with other, you should smile, gain the respect of others, and create that positive environment for discussion.
- Another useful body language tip is to “study” carefully the facial expressions of others and mirror these expressions. If they are laid-back and jovial, behave likewise and you’ll feel able to relax and enjoy your meeting. If they are serious and want to focus on the matter at hand, keep the same attitude.
- What about the value of eye contact?
Once you’ve worked on your posture and smile, it’s then important to keep a keen eye on what your counterparts or colleagues are saying verbally. Have a direct eye contact when you talk to him or her as this suggests you’re giving them your full attention and that you care. However, if you work within an industry that requires you to regularly venture overseas, it’s highly recommended that you brush up on the role body language plays in business traditions around the globe. For instance, you may not be aware that while regular eye contact is viewed positively in North America and Canada, in the Middle East, eye contact is only viewed as a symbol of sincerity and trust between those of the same gender.
“Language is a more recent technology. Your body language, your eyes, your energy, will come through to your audience before you even start speaking.” (Peter Guber said)
Can we influence body language?
The truth is that there have been many studies on this question with significant findings. As already mentioned, from the day of the individual’s birth, the first means of communication that man uses is his body and body language is an integral part of the individual’s existence Not only does it help in communication, but it reflects the inner being of the individual. We could say that body language is an inherent / hereditary phenomenon, but that’s not the only thing.
People who deal with this non-verbal mode of communication report that they cannot change what their body reveals about them unless they change it in a considered way. This requires, of course, a lot of practice, a process that one is not willing to proceed into. Besides, as successful as an individual who manages to use body language is, he or she cannot attain 100% efficiency in using body language to the fullest. This is because subconscious movements are increasingly coming to the surface, so, in this case the individual will not be able to fully control the situation.
“Of all the things you wear, the expression is the most important.” (Unknown said)
Personality is complex, just like the non-verbal communication. Moreover, body language is not a language in an ordinary sense; it can help us identify the mood of the individual but not the individual’s character and the character’s features.
To sum up with,
- is connected to the individual’s personality;
- is a mode of expression;
- is a form of communication;
- is real and may reveal things that the individual does not want to share with others;
- is expressed by the subconscious;
- cannot disappear from the individual’s entirety;
- conveys emotions;
- is the main mode of communication among people;
- may be influenced;
- takes four signs in order to be timely and reliable;
- may have different interpretations in other languages, but…
- … it is, in general terms, identifiable throughout the world;
- must be read in the context of the situation;
- is inherent but it can be taught as well.
“Effective communication is 20% what you know, and 80% how you feel about what you know.” (Jim Rohn said)
Understanding body language is not easy; on the contrary, it’s a difficult, strange, but also interesting science. By becoming familiar with basic non-verbal signs, it is possible to improve body language understanding, in order to better understand the emotions, the thoughts of others around us, as well as our emotions and thoughts. With time, effort and dedication, you can also “study” the personality of others and you will be able to understand if the other person is a shy, extrovert, distressed, or a self-confident individual!
Let’s not forget that the main features of our personality are conveyed through our body posture! Moreover, when we refer to instinct, we might mean that we know how to interpret body language. Besides, the eyes are the mirror of our soul!
Furthermore, you will have the opportunity to learn more about the concept of personality, the factors that influence it and the types of personalities so that you can rank yourself in one or more of them. In this way, you will have compiled all the information that is necessary so that you can better learn about others around you as well as about your own self.
Who are we really? Are we really who we think we are? Why are we what we are? Can we change who we are? So, learn yourself better and use this knowledge in order to have a better and more positive and advantageous life. This information is the key to understanding behaviors and, eventually, to the importance of personality formation and development.
If you want to know what personality category you are classified in, follow the link below and do the personality test…
More information about
Would you like to learn more about topics of the personalities? Then please check out the links right down below:
- what is personality?
- Theories of personality development
- Personality alphabet
- Personality Development
- Codes of Personality
- The 20 most important personalities in ancient Greece
- 200 Influential Personalities of all time
- Personality Types in the General Population
- What colours could reveal about our personality?
Colours… Colours are everywhere… Wherever you look, you realize that life is full of millions of colour shades. Among this barrage of colours that emerges around us, you may, certainly, find your favourite one. What does that mean to you, though?
“Nature always wears the colors of the spirit.” (Ralph Waldo Emerson said)
Definition of colours
It is widely known that colours consist of two substances: light and energy. Colours have always existed in our lives. Colours will always exist in our lives. Colours are an integral part of anything around us and the human being is born and grows surrounded by multiple colour shades that change due to the angle and the amount of the sunlight. This magical, exceptional phenomenon of colours has either a positive or negative impact on the physical or the mental condition of the individual and directly affects the individual’s mood, nature and personality due to the fact that each colour on the palette appears at a specific frequency and it is processed and perceived in a special way by the human brain.
Tests conducted on blind people made the fact that colours play a significant role on people’s mood clearly understood. Since they were given differently coloured handkerchiefs, they only had the sense of touch to feel the colour of each one of them. The results were amazing! All the participants were able to find which handkerchief had a specific colour pointing out that there were differences in their textures. Specifically, according the findings of these tests, there were:
- Blue is the colour of calm and quietness;
- Orange is the colour of joy, pleasure and delight and it’s the symbol of the rising sun;
- Purple is the colour of relaxation.
“Colors, like features, follow the changes of the emotions.” (Pablo Picasso said)
Why does the human brain, however, perceive the colour shades differently? Why do colours affect the individual’s mood and feelings?
The importance of colours in our life
The individual is surrounded by colours and, as the individual grows up, he or she gains more knowledge about them. In this way, the individual discovers the natural colours, colours that come from nature itself as well as the artificial colours that are created for aesthetic purposes.
The colours of nature refer to specific activities in and of themselves, such as the body activity during the day or the body’s inaction, inertia, during the night.
On the other hand, the artificial colours are those that are directly related to social institutions and are predetermined by society itself, representing concrete concepts, such as black is associated with death and mourning.
More generally, it is understood that the way colors are perceived is influenced by multiple factors, such as:
- the environment, in each case,
- the heredity,
- the age,
- the gender,
- the social context
“All colors are the friends of their neighbors and the lovers of their opposites.” (Marc Chagall said)
However, according to research, each colour has a specific impact and this impact can be detected in everyday activities, such as
- when choosing clothes to wear,
- when decorating the house,
- when choosing foodstuffs/food products,
- at family, personal or social events,
- in commerce,
- when treating a patient or when an individual is being treated as a patient,
- in advertising
as well as in many other activities. In addition, according to research, most people choose colours that reflect their emotional condition, their mood or even their mental state at any given time. That means that depressed people, for instance, usually choose clothes in dark colours while well-balanced individuals, happier people or children tend to wear clothes in bright colours.
However, have you ever thought what might be behind the colour preferences that an individual may have?
Research has shown that the brain perceives certain colours in different ways. Warm colours, such as red, orange and yellow, evoke intimacy as they create a welcoming feeling while cool colours, such as blue, purple and green, are usually calming and soothing but they can also call to mind feelings of sadness or indifference.
“It’s ok to show all your colors.” (Luis Guzman said)
There is a clear difference of opinion as far as the reason why the brain perceives certain colours this way.
Theory related to the impact of colours on the brain
According to the first theory referring to the way that the brain is influenced by the colours, there is a natural association of colours with the corresponding feelings. From the very beginning, the human brain interprets the colours in a specific way, considering the frequency of their occurrence.
Theory related to the impact of colours on the brain
According to the second theory referring to the way that the brain is influenced by the colours, the emotions are created in the brain depending on the experiences and the facts of life. In short, it’s a product of learning that is acquired throughout life. The reason lies in the fact that the brain has learned about the relevance of red colour to the danger, that of the yellow colour to joy and the relevance of black colour to something negative
So far, science has not come to conclusions regarding this issue. However, according to both theories, the brain interprets and processes the different colours creating specific feelings, either positive or negative ones.
“Light in Nature creates the movement of colors.” (Robert DeLaunay said)
What do colours mean and represent?
The colour psychology is based on the mental and emotional effects colours have on people in all facets of life. According to the colour psychology, the individual’s emotions are classified considering the classification we make as regards the colours.
Warm Colours are made with orange, red, and yellow and they tend to make you think of warm things, such sunlight and heat. These colours create strong emotions ranging from comfort, joy, warmth to hostility, nerves, anger, and fuss. Warm colours often evoke feelings of happiness, optimism and energy. It has been scientifically proved that, through the shades of warm colours, the heartbeat is growing and, at the same time, the brain is filled with the hormone of adrenaline, which increases the energy, stimulates the appetite and, in general, the power of the individual. Being surrounded with warm colours for a long time may create overwhelming, irritating or frustrating feelings.
On the contrary, cool colours are thought to be calming, relaxing and reserved. They create gentle, mild feelings such as the tranquility, the rest, the relaxation, the serenity and the sadness. These feelings may increase the creativity of the individual, put the brain at ease and provide the individual with a balanced serenity. This excessive relaxation can also lead to sadness and sorrow.
As mentioned before, colors affect moods and emotions. For example, the red spectrum affects our physical energies. It is stimulating and warming. Blues are cooling and cleansing, affecting our spiritual energies. The yellow shades serve to bridge them, affecting our mental energies. The three colors together provide opportunities for healing our body, mind, and spirit.
You may have a detailed look of the emotional connotations that are caused by the colour shades, according to Max Lüscher, a pioneer of the colour psychology; specifically:
(% IN POSITIVE ANSWERS)
|RED||64,3%||stimulates the emotional arousal, increases the pulse and heart rate, raises the blood pressure, raises the body temperature, increases lower metabolic rates, enhancing human metabolism, combats the fatigue, helps in depression, increases the respiration rate, passion / irritability, bad temper, moodiness, nervousness, used against scarlet fever and measles, used against fever, used against toothache, against anemia, action, healing properties, aggression / energy, determination, mastery, control, body temperature increase, counteracts anemia, affects the circulatory system by activating the blood circulation , love, attack, offence, assault, determination, decisiveness, stubbornness, extroversion, outgoing behaviour, competitiveness, strength
caution, anger, temper, danger and destruction, aggressiveness, violence, gives the person a sense of power, can be used for colds, poor circulation, anemia, and mucus ailments, strengthens the physical energy and the will of the individual
|YELLOW||93,9%||boosts the nervous system, stimulates the self-esteem, helps with arthritis, helps in treatment regarding skin problems, helps in treatment against allergies, can be used for depression, relaxation, tranquility, calm, peacefulness, creativity, optimism, liveliness, vigour, brightness, curiosity , extroversion, joy, gaiety, merriment, positive thinking, jealousy, envy, stress, pressure, unease, anxiety, depression, good for despondent and melancholy conditions, awakens an enthusiasm for life, awakens greater confidence and optimism, effective in the treatment of digestive problems, helps to balance the gastrointestinal tract|
|GREEN||95,9%||it can be applied beneficially in cardiac conditions,, it can be applied beneficially in high blood pressure, it can be applied beneficially in headaches, it is calming both physically and mentally, it is balancing to the autonomic nervous system , it is restful and emotionally soothing, it is the color of nature/environment as it is the most predominant color on the planet, power, strength, hope, better quality of life, respect, harmony, balance, it is cooling, soothing, and calming both physically and mentally. If you are exhausted, green initially has a beneficial effect, but after a time, it becomes tiring, it is the colour of energy, youth, growth, inexperience, fertility, hope, and new life
stability , boredom
|BROWN||Logic, practical sense, stability, tradition, reliability, diligence
|BLUE||79,6%||it slows the blood pressure, it slows the action of the heart and is therefore good for tachycardia, it slows the respiration rate, it strengthens and balances the respiratory system, it is good for over-excitement, it is the color for truth, devotion, calmness, and sincerity, it helps to reduce headaches and migraine, it is very effective in easing all childhood diseases, along with asthma, chicken pox, jaundice, and rheumatism, it helps against fever, it helps against stress, pressure, unease, anxiety, it helps against problems with bones, eyes, ears, it helps against insomnia, it is beneficial to venous conditions of the body, it is beneficial to endocrine disorders, it can also be used to awaken intuition and to ease loneliness, it is the color of intuition and the higher mental faculties, it helps calm the mind and helps in concentration and productivity, Order / security, It suppresses the appetite for food, logic, low profile, confidence, faith, calm / stability, it is the color for truth, devotion, joy and sincerity , cleverness, intelligence, communication, tranquility, peace of mind
coldness, aloofness, cautiousness, reserve, self-restraint
|MAUVE/PURPLE OR VIOLET||64,3%||it helps with the vision, it helps with the hearing, it balances psychological problems, it helps slowing down rapid heartbeat, it helps with the eyes, wealth, picturing something in the mind; visualizing things, it gives authority, prestige
Insecurity, sadness / mourning, melancholy
|GREY||7,1%||neutrality; detachment, compromise; conciliation, low profile
coldness; reserve; lack of friendliness or lack of emotion, isolation
|ORANGE||–||it helps with the asthma, it stimulates feelings of socialness; it combines physical energy with mental qualities, it can assist us in healing conditions of depression, it stimulates and increases the pulse rate without affecting the blood pressure, it is tied to our emotional health and the muscular system of the body, energy increase, it enlivens the emotions, and creates a general sense of well-being and cheerfulness, it is useful for bronchitis, rheumatism, muscle spasms or cramps of all kinds, joy, enthusiasm; excitement, happiness, optimism, warmth; homeliness; geniality|
|PINK||–||tenderness; softness; gentleness, innocence, feminity, love, it is soothing, it can be used for treating skin conditions and inflammations as well as the immune system,it is comforting to the emotional energies of the individual|
|BLACK||19,4%||Fulfilment, It shows maturity, It shows elegance, formality; etiquette; dignity, it relates to the hidden, the secretive and the unknown, and as a result it creates an air of mystery, strength, elegance, splendour; majesty; impressive physical presence, deep thoughts, sophisticated appearance, It is grounding and calming, especially to extremely sensitive individuals, It activates the magnetic or feminine energies of the body, strengthening them, It promotes resistance, obstruction, opposition, and enmity, It wards off hatred and negative emotions
Fear /threat, depression, death / misery, coldness, loneliness
|WHITE||61,2%||It conveys the message of freedom, Optimism, It attracts positive energy, joy, it symbolizes innocence, it symbolizes purity and spirituality, it symbolizes simplicity, sterilization, faith, hope, sincerity, glow, glamour, brightness
We should know that the choice we make in colours in not made by chance; but it reveals elements of ourselves, our way of thinking… It also reflects the impact of the surroundings on the individual, the individual’s strengths, weaknesses and needs at any given moment.
Colours can dramatically affect moods, feelings, and emotions. “Colours, like features, follow the changes of the emotions,” the artist Pablo Picasso once remarked. Colours are a powerful communication tool and can be used to signal action, influence mood, and even influence physiological reactions. Certain colours have been associated with increased blood pressure, increased metabolism, and eyestrain.
Below you will be able to rank yourself according to your favourite colour and find out what kind of personality you are. Think about your favourite colour and find out what is your personality type! It is this instinctual choice of a color that tells you a lot about yourself, how you function and how others see you. It is the means to understanding your behaviour and your character traits as well as your physical, mental, emotional and spiritual states. It reflects the way you operate in the world, your strengths and weaknesses, your vulnerabilities, your deepest needs and your challenges at that time in your life.
“I try to apply colors like words that shape poems, like notes that shape music.” (Joan Miro said)
If your favourite colour is red, you are an action-oriented individual with a deep need for physical fulfilment and to experience life through the five senses. If your favourite colour is red, you are an extroverted and optimistic, courageous and confident individual.
Individuals who have red as their favourite colour are dynamic people who have strong survival instincts. Red is also considered an intense, or even angry, colour that creates feelings of excitement, dynamism, or intensity. These people have a passion and enthusiasm for life, are not afraid to pursue their dreams and goals, they are self-confident and they have no fear…
Their determination helps them fulfill their goals and dreams. They have a strong need for power and control. These individuals prefer to be leaders; they are self-obsessed and egocentric people who want to excel in different issues. These individuals enjoy challenges and, sometimes, they are competitive.
Being a strong personality and a very stubborn and headstrong person, such a person acts with courage and zest, trying to see the positive side of life. Energy, power, and spontaneity may be misinterpreted and such a personality may be considered as irritable, bad tempered or aggressive. However, this individual is an extrovert person who does not go unnoticed. This individual lives in the present and is optimistic about the future. This individual gains the respect of the others, wants to be a pioneer in life and engages others due to this individual’s dynamism.
Positive and Negative Traits
Positive keywords include: action, energy and speed, attention-getting, confident, energizing, stimulating, exciting, powerful, passionate, courageous and strong, spontaneous and determined.
Negative keywords include: aggressive and domineering, over-bearing, tiring, angry and quick-tempered, ruthless, fearful and intolerant, rebellious and obstinate, resentful, violent and brutal.
Blue is a colour often found in nature such as the pale blue of a daytime sky or the rich dark blue of a deep pool of water. It is for this reason perhaps that people often describe the colour blue as calm and serene.
Individuals who have blue as their favourite colour are people who know well how to control their emotions. These people do not smile very often as they spend a lot of time thinking before they act. These people are considered to be reasonable, logical, organized and disciplined. They do not trust others easily but other people trust them. They have an inner strength and tranquility and they always try to avoid stress.
These people enjoy being surrounded by other people but they do not accept lies, deceit and hypocrisy. They prefer dealing with honesty, commitment, dedication and loyalty. Stability and seriousness are main features of this personality. Blue evokes melancholia, nostalgia and peace. These people are dreamers and well-balanced individuals.
These people know what they want in life and they act mainly based on reason. They need peace and tranquillity, without many problems or agitation. They can be easily hurt since they are emotional, sensitive and soft-hearted people. They take steps forward but they are not impulsive. On the contrary, they are reliable, firm in their beliefs, self-disciplined and scrupulous people.
Positive and Negative Traits
Positive keywords include: loyalty, trust and integrity, tactful, reliability and responsibility, disciplined,
Negative keywords include: being rigid, depressed and sad, too passive, self-righteous, conservative and old-fashioned, aloof and frigid. It can also indicate manipulation, unfaithfulness and being untrustworthy.
White is purity, innocence, wholeness and completion. In colour psychology white is the colour of new beginnings, of wiping the slate clean, so to speak. It is the blank canvas waiting to be written upon. While white isn’t stimulating to the senses, it opens the way for the creation of anything the mind can conceive.
Although the white colour is not considered as a pure colour by the scientists due to the fact that white contains an equal balance of all the colours, the human brain perceives it as something different from the other colours and reacts in its own special way.
White contains an equal balance of all the colours of the spectrum, representing both the positive and negative aspects of all colours. Its basic feature is equality, implying fairness and impartiality, neutrality and independence.
Individuals who have white as their favourite colour are people who have an exceptional personality. White represents purity, innocence. These people want to be free; they do not like pressures and they prefer living in a carefree way. They are positive, optimistic people who believe in luck, in the opportunities that are given to them.
White is a color of protection and encouragement, offering a sense of peace and calm, comfort and hope, helping alleviate emotional upsets. It creates a sense of order and efficiency.
They believe in themselves and they do not think of the obstacles that may discourage them and dissuade them from achieving their goals. These people are far-sighted, with a positive and optimistic nature and they are full of faith;. Thus, they can achieve their goals. Too much positive thinking may lead to risky, or even dangerous, situations.
It is obvious that creativity and temperament may help them move forward. Sometimes, however, it can be misunderstood and described as empty, leaving no one to invade their personal life. Many people use white as a recall of their youth and innocence. It reminds them of a time when their lives were easier and less complicated.
Positive and Negative Traits
Positive keywords include: innocence, purity, cleanliness, equality, complete and whole, simplicity, immaculate and neat, self-sufficient, pristine and open, new beginnings.
Negative keywords include: sterile, stark, fastidious, empty, isolated, cautious, plain, distant, unimaginative, critical and boring.
Green is a lively colour, and it symbolizes renewal and growth. It is the colour you see the most in the natural environment. So it is the colour of spring, when everything comes to life. And it depicts the period when everything is alive and unrolling its natural processes.
It’s the colour of growth and health. Think of nature and see green in all its glory expressing renewal and life. Green has a strong association as a refreshing and peaceful colour. It evokes feeling of abundance and a plentiful environment while providing a restful and secure feeling. The prosperity signified by green can be negatively perceived as materialistic and possessive.
Green is a peculiar colour for peculiar people; people who have a peculiar, characteristic personality which is not easy to interpret. Individuals who have green as their favourite colour are communicative people; they want to be reassured through relationships with other people. The need to love other and to be loved by others and they can express their feelings unconditionally. They prefer to be in power and they want to have power on other people. Their greatest concern is how they are viewed by other people and they really want to be seen as successful, wealthy, and important people in their social circles. They are gentle, kind, generous, helpful and caring people who stand by other people who need help. Green is the colour of nature, growth, life and health and these people have a love for nature and environment since they may find peace and tranquility when they are close to nature.
They want to be in good terms with everyone; they are flexible and they are in constant quest to a better future. They have a mature personality who does not lose hope and aims at improving the quality of their life.
These people have a strong sense of right or wrong, inviting good judgment. They see both sides of the equation, weigh them up, and then usually take the moral stand in making appropriate decisions. On the negative side, they can be judgmental and over-cautious.
Being emotionally balanced and calm individuals, they take great care of the way they express themselves and they wish to have their opinions respected. They are a little self-centered people, but they are always organized. They love to help other people but they may be cautious and skeptical when they come up against problems. Trust is very important to these people but they feel confident when they trust the others.
Finally, as they are practical people, they are not dreamers; on the contrary they are down to earth, they do not take risks and they move forward, taking reasonable steps in order to achieve their goals and fulfill their wishes.
Positive and Negative Traits
Positive keywords include: self-reliance, reliability and dependability, emotionally balanced and calm, nature lover, practical and down to earth, compassionate, generous, kind and loyal with a high moral sense, adaptable, having a need to belong.
Negative keywords include: being possessive and materialistic, indifferent and over-cautious, envious, selfish, greedy and miserly, devious with money, inconsiderate, inexperienced, a hypochondriac and a do-gooder.
It takes a certain type of personality to prefer yellow to all the other colours. It involves a level of optimism that most people over the age of 10 just don’t have. Because of this optimism, and the idealism that comes along with it, people who love yellow sometimes come off as whacky or aloof, but that’s just because the moody folks are straight-up jealous.
Individuals who like yellow are the happiest people. They have a calm and hospitable personality; they are people with a great sense of humour and liveliness. They are constantly looking for happiness and they want to share it with everyone around them.
They are communicative people and they are good at talking with others. They love life and everything loves provides to them. They are curious, inquisitive people who want to learn about new things. They are flexible people who love adventures and take risks many times in their lives. Even when they fail, they lean from their failure and positive thoughts prevail even in this case. They are not discouraged; they do not quit and they may be a great role model for other people.
They look forward to all of the positive possibilities in their future. They like making far-fetched dreams. They need people around them, people who can guide them and give them useful advice. They are mentally alert but sometimes they are prone into laziness. Nevertheless, they are ambitious people who make an impact on others due to their positive ene4rgy, adrenaline and dynamism.
Positive and Negative Traits
Positive keywords include: optimism, cheerfulness, enthusiasm, fun, good-humored, confidence, originality, creativity, challenging, analytical.
Negative keywords include: being critical and judgmental, being overly analytical, being impatient and impulsive, being egotistical, pessimistic, having an inferiority complex, spiteful, cowardly, deceitful, non-emotional and lacking compassion.
Individuals who like brown are rare people as the choice of this colour is not something common or usual. These individuals are exceptional people.
Kind, polite and gentle people, really frank and honest people but, sometimes, they can be rude. They know very well what they expect from life; they are unswerving and unfaltering people who do not make spontaneous moves. They are peaceful, reassured and reasonable people. They are aware of their duties and they take their responsibilities seriously. They take life seriously and he is very protective for people who need help.
These individuals are low profile people who prefer acting than talking. A family and a comfortable home is what matters for them. Finally, routine makes them feel comfortable. Safety is essential for them, because that’s the only way they can work properly.
Those who love brown have no need for extravagance. They like things as they are, and can do without any complications that come with change. They’re reliable, frugal, direct, and being spur of the moment is just not in their personality.
Positive and Negative Traits
Positive keywords include: down-to-earth, practical, approachable, friendly, stable, structured, supportive, comforting, reliable, protective, strength, quietly confident, sensual, sensitive, warm, reassured, honest, sincere, quality.
Negative keywords include: dull, boring, frugal, materialistic, lack of humor, lack of sophistication, predictable, cheap and stingy.
Those who say their favourite colour is grey don’t tend to have any major likes or dislikes. They can take or leave most things, and, on a whole, lack the passion that comes with loving a “real” colour.
Somewhere between black and white, grey is the colour that just can’t commit, and the same goes for those who love it. Grey is somewhere between black and white. It is an unemotional colour. It is a detached, neutral, impartial and indecisive colour as the people who like it. These people are low profile individuals who prefer to be a casual observer. Their tact and discretion make them exceptional but they may be thought to be aloof, indifferent.
They have learned to compromise and find mutually acceptable solutions; they have learned to respond and tell the absolute truth. They prefer being frank, outspoken people, despite the fact that their frankness may be insulting. They do not react and they look reserved, cold and aloof. They need privacy, they are introvert people. This is how they can think clearly.
They are indecisive, hesitant. Problems and difficulties make them nervous, emotionally depressed. Nevertheless, they are fair, morally correct. Hey try not to disappoint other people, be righteous and make fair decisions.
Positive and Negative Traits
Positive keywords include: reliable, conservative, dignified, neutral, impartial, professional, mature, intelligent, stable, calming, reserved, elegant, formal and dependable.
Negative keywords include: indecisive, non-emotional, indifferent, boring, sad, depressed, lifeless, and reserved.
Black colour, as white, is not considered as a pure colour by the scientists due to the fact that white contains an equal balance of all the colours. Nevertheless, researchers have detected in black colour features that make it unique.
The color black relates to the hidden, the secretive and the unknown, and as a result it creates an air of mystery. It keeps things bottled up inside, hidden from the world. It gives protection from external emotional stress.
Individuals who like black colour may be described in different ways. Black means power and control, hanging on to information and things rather than giving out to others. Thus, these individuals are responsible, serious and, at the same time, secretive people. They have an air of mystery and they seem to have intriguing personalities. They have glamour, and style; they are self-controlled people, they have a strong will and they give an impression of authority and power. They may look sophisticated, elegant and confident but they may be frightened as well.
They do not talk much, they are introvert people and, despite everything, they are not superficial people. They seek the meaning of deep concepts and they are very knowledgeable about things. They often feel marginalized people and too stressed. However, they want to be in control. They are not afraid of the unknown; they are curious and inquisitive, trying to learn things that no one knows. Finally, they cause fear and insecurity; they intimidate other people but they also make other people be involved with them in order to explore the private side of their personalities.
Positive and Negative Traits
Positive keywords include protection and comfort, strong, contained, formal, sophisticated, seductive and mysterious.
Negative keywords include aloof, depressing and pessimistic, secretive and withholding, conservative and serious, power & control, sadness and negativity.
“You see everyone’s true colors in a rehearsal.” (Andrew Keenan- Bolger said)
Colour therapy or chromo therapy in our lives
What the colour therapy or chromo therapy stands for?
Throughout the antiquity, the human being used to believe that the colours exert a great influence upon the soul and the body. It was so right!! Ancient Egyptians and Chinese were using the colours in order to stimulate important vital organs.
The father of Western Medicine Hippocrates recognized the essence of balance between the mind, body, and soul. He also knew how the use of colours can be a focal part of the healing process. However, his followers geared their focus towards studying the physical aspects of healing using colours. Since then, many scholars have used a scientific approach to explore the wonders of chromo therapy.
Isaac Newton, for example, wrote a book “Optics” in 1704. Johann Wolfgang published the “Theory of Colours” in 1810. Harvard professor Dr. Edwin Babbitt wrote “The Principles of Light and Colour” and invented the Chromo disk. Other intellectuals like Rudolf Steiner, Dr. Max Luscher, and Dr. Theo Gimbel also made further studies to prove the validity of Chromo therapy.
Over the years, the colours have been the subject of many studies and they are used for physical and psychological therapies till these days. During chromo therapy sessions, six main colours may be used:
Chromo therapy experiments
At the end of the 20th century, in 1973, F. Dyer, professor at the University of Massachusetts, proved that colours exert a great influence on the way of thinking and feeling by offering several well-cooked dishes to his students inviting them to taste these dishes. The specificity of this experiment was that the dishes had a different colour than the usual one. The results were clear as the students did not enjoy their meals; on the contrary, they had the impression that the food was not delicious.
Two years later, there were new research studies regarding the impact of the colours on the mental and physical condition of people conducted by Dr. Jacobs and Suesh. The experiments mainly were conducted in hospitals and ambulances, where the change of indoor environments in an emergency situation showed significant changes in patients’ physical and mental condition. The red was increasing the heartbeats, while the green and the blue had a calming effect.
Meanwhile, constructions like London’s Blackfriars bridge, in England, was the subject of different research studies and it was repainted red and brown in an attempt to reduce the number of people who commit suicide by jumping from it naming this bridge as “the bridge of suicides”. The results were amazing as the suicide rate was reduced by 34%.
Being based on the above examples as well as on many other examples, contemporary researchers concluded that different colours may improve the mental and physical condition of individuals. They also noticed that people with a healthy body and soul prefer bright colours and that their overall performance is better when they are surrounded by vivid colours.
“Some colors reconcile themselves to one another, others just clash.” (Edvard Munch said)
Classification of the colours during the colour/chromo therapy
- Physical stimulation
- Mental stimulation
It brings warmth, energy and stimulation, therefore good for energy, fatigue, colds, chilly and passive people. Red energizes heart and blood circulation, it builds up the blood and heightens a low blood pressure. It energizes all organs and the senses hearing, smell, taste, vision and touch.
- Relaxing, physically
- Relaxing, soothing and calming, mentally
Blue is cooling, electric, astringent. It cools down inflammations (don’t forget rheumatic inflammations), fever, high blood pressure. It stops bleedings, it reliefs the bursting headaches, it calms strong emotions like anger, aggression or hysteria. It rings tranquility. It is anti-itching and it soothes suffering.
- Hope / strength
Green is the color of Nature and the earth. It is balance and harmony in essence and possesses a soothing influence upon both mind and body. It is neither relaxing nor astringent in its impact. Green can be used for just about any condition in need of healing. Green rings psychological and emotional harmony and balance. It cures hormonal imbalances. It stimulates growth hormone and rejuvenation. It stimulates inner peace. It strengthens the nervous system. Green brings peace, rest, hope, comfort and nurturing, calmness and harmony.
- Physical and mental stimulation
- Strength for the muscles
Yellow is the colour of joy, happiness and mental alertness. It strengthens the nerves and the mind. It awakens mental inspiration and stimulates higher mentality. Thus, it is an excellent colour for nervous or nerve-related conditions or ailments. It also energizes the muscles.
- Relaxing, physically
- Relaxing, soothing and calming, mentally
It is used for stability, grounding, conservation, protection of household, family and pets, healing animals, finding lost objects, material constructions (buildings etc.), material increase; it is used in order to make relationships solid, to increase decisiveness and concentration, attracting help in financial crisis.
- Positive energy
Orange is warm, cheering. Orange has a freeing action upon the body and mind, relieving repressions. Orange shows new possibilities and other options in life. Stimulates creative thinking and enthusiasm, and helps assimilate new ideas. Orange stimulates the lungs, the respiration and the digestion. It increases the activity of the thyroid. It relieves muscle cramps and spasms. It increases the amount of mother milk.
- Childlike naivety
- Balance of feelings
Pink heals grief and sadness. It restores youthfulness. It brings you in contact with your feelings. It is regarded as a feminine color. Pink symbolizes softness, sweetness, innocence, youthfulness and tenderness.
White – Black
- Total balance
- Meeting extreme contradictions
White is the perfect color; for it is all colors, in perfect balance and harmony. White points at innocence, purity, virginity, cleanliness, freshness, simplicity, nothingness, oneness and completion, truth. As for black, it symbolizes seriousness, darkness, depression, death, mourning, mystery, secrecy, occultism, provocation, underground, underworld, things that have to remain hidden, nothingness as the great source of all creation, the need to keep your energy with you.
Use of colour/chromo therapy
Colour/chromo therapy can be blamed by some people, as it follows a special method to fight and deal with physical and psychological problems and this method is neither easy to understand understandable nor acceptable by other people..
The patient is covered with coloured silk fabrics or the patient is immersed in colourful water and remains there until the desired colour is reflected in the human body. The emission of light in a specific colour helps the patient achieve the desired result. Simply put, through this method, the light energy of colours is used in order to stimulate the organs of the body, aiming at strengthening the body and treating various diseases. The tools that are used for this method are as follows:
- Candles / lamps
- Crystal and glass prisms
- Coloured fabrics
- Colour bath treatments
- Coloured eye lenses
It is said that through colour/chromo therapy the coloured rays come from the eye to the brain and turn into concrete actions or feelings which contribute to the elimination or the reduction of any problems.
Apart from this method, the patient has to come into daily contact with the appropriate colours for him, depending on the physical and mental problems he deals with. Typically, warm colours are recommended for people who deal with hypertension, stress or lather, while cold colours are recommended for people who suffer from hypotension, hypotonia, languor or debility.
Chromo therapy or commonly color therapy falls under the category of Complementary and Alternative Medicine System (CAMS) of treatment which can be helpful to cure diseases. It is one of the most successful ancient practices which are now gaining interest as a valid and effective science. It is a well established fact that chromo therapy triggers the specific points in our body and relieves various ailments. It is essential that it has no side-effects. It is pleasant and completely painless. Anyone who is interested in trying an alternative treatment without having any side-effects, could try chromo therapy.
“The soul becomes dyed with the color of its thoughts.” (Marcus Aurelius said)
It is certain that the colours affect the human body in their unique way each separately in both emotional and psychological as well as in physical functions.
Moreover, you will have the opportunity to learn more about the concept of personality, the factors that affect your personality and the different types of personalities, so that you can rank yourself in one or more of them. In this way, you will have acquired all the knowledge that is necessary so that you can better learn about the people around you, but it is much more important to learn yourself.
Who are we really? Are we really who we think we are? Why are we what we are? Can we change who we are? So, learn YOURSELF better and use this knowledge in order to have a better and more positive and advantageous life. This information is the key to understanding behaviors and, eventually, to the importance of personality formation and development.
If you want to know what personality category you are classified in, follow the link below and do the personality test…
More information about
Would you like to learn more about topics of the personalities? Then please check out the links right down below:
The 20 important people in Ancient Greece
“There is not any people in the world who has contributed so much to mankind as the Greek has been so much fought by so many peoples who did not offer anything to it.” (Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche said)
Ancient Greeks… Ancient Greece… A different people… Mysterious people full of historical upheavals, victories and defeats… Ancient Greeks were people full of bravery, ethos and heroism, who left the mark of their rich history and wonderful culture around the world. Ancient Greeks marked the history of mankind and still have a huge impact on it. Ancient Greeks were brave individuals who, despite the difficulties of life, managed to stand out and be remembered in people’s memories over time.
Ancient Greeks were associated with the start of the first Olympic Games that still inspire and unite people across borders. Ancient Greeks are associated with literature, mathematics, democracy… Ancient Greece is still associated with philosophy, music and fine arts.
Ancient Greeks have become an inspirational model and an example to others. There is a powerful influence on future generations and they have become a reference point for them. They contributed greatly to the evolution of other people and cities. Ancient Greeks are more than ordinary people. Ancient Greece is more than a nation that, despite its small geographical area, has been one of the greatest influences on the peoples of the world. These people are wonderful people, great personalities…
“Break down all Greece in depth 100 meters… Break down everything Greek from around the globe… You can say “it cannot happen”… Well, You Can’t… because after that you will not be able to foothold even one sentence!
Greece cannot be extinguished…the Greeks (Hellenes) , their offer on this planet… The challenge, however, still stands…The last word of humanity, when she’ll leave her last breath, will be HELLAS!” – Jean Rispen (French poet and theatrical writer)
It goes without saying that we should make a reference of 20 of the most significant figures, the most prominent people to know about in Ancient Greece who were a role model and made us understand the notion of education, the concept of unity, the concept of love and freedom.
“For the Greeks, values existed a priori and marked out the exact limits of every action. Modern philosophy places its values at the completion of action. They are not, but they become, and we shall know them completely only at the end of history. When they disappear, limits vanish as well, and since ideas differ as to what these values will be, since there is no struggle which, unhindered by these same values, does not extend indefinitely, we are now witnessing the Messianic forces confronting one another, their clamors merging in the shock of empires. Excess is a fire, according to Heraclitus. The fire is gaining ground; Nietzsche has been overtaken. It is no longer with hammer blows but with cannon shots that Europe philosophizes.” – Albert Camus
According to a recent research conducted at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), there was a ranking of the analytical data on the history and culture of peoples around the world. According to the findings of this research, Ancient Greek figures occupy the first places in this ranking. Listed below are the top 20 most significant personalities of Ancient Greece:
Alexander the Great (356 BC – 323 BC)
“I am indebted to my father for living, but to my teacher for living well.”
- Alexander III of Macedon, commonly known as Alexander the Great, was a king of the ancient kingdom of Macedonia; he led the Pan-Hellenic alliance against the Persians and he was crowned Pharaoh of Egypt and King of Asia and Northwestern India.
- He had great abilities as a military leader and politician.
- He was educated by the great philosopher Aristotle.
- He conducted military campaigns to the East
“There is nothing impossible to him who will try.”
Homer (800-750 BC)
“One omen is best; defending the fatherland.”
- Ancient poet;
- The legendary author of Iliad and Odyssey (“Homeric Poems”);
- He traveled around the Greek cities, reciting his poems;
- Homer wrote other epic poems related to the Trojan War.
“The difficulty is not so great to die for a friend, as to find a friend worth dying for.”
Socrates (470 MC/469 – 399 BC)
“The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing.”
- He is considered the father of western philosophy;
- He was the personality between the philosophers before and after Socrates;
- Socrates was Plato’s mentor, and teacher;
- Socrates changed how philosophy itself was to be conceived;
- Socrates had a lot of listeners;
- Socrates did not have a systematic teaching;
- Socrates used a teaching method called known as maieutics, method of elenchus, elenctic method, or Socratic debate, a form of cooperative argumentative dialogue between individuals, based on asking and answering questions to stimulate critical thinking and to draw out ideas and underlying presumptions;
- Socrates used to socialize with people from different social classes;
- Socrates did not accept any payment for his teaching;
- Socrates believed in self-knowledge;
- Socrates believed that knowledge is virtue;
- Socrates believed that a continuous journey of self–improvement was essential for every person and this concept prevailed in his method of teaching.
Aristotle (384 BC – 322 BC)
“Man is the only animal capable of reasoning, though many others possess the faculty of memory and instruction in common with him.”
- He was a philosopher and a scientist;
- He was a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great;
- His writings cover many subjects, including physics, metaphysics, poetry, theater, music, logic, rhetoric, politics, government, ethics, biology, zoology, etc;
- Aristotle was the first person to study biology systematically; he was the father of biology,
- His philosophy is called Aristotelian Philosophy or
“At his best, man is the noblest of all animals; separated from law and justice, he is the worst.”
Plato (427 BC – 347 BC)
“You cannot ask for something you don’t know.”
- He was the student of Socrates;
- He was a philosopher;
- He was the teacher of Aristotle;
- He had a massive influence on the ancient Greek philosophy;
- Plato wrote about the life and death of Socrates (The Apology of Socrates);
- His works are in the form of dialogues, where several characters argue a topic by asking questions of each other. This form allows Plato to raise various points of view and let the reader decide which is valid.
Pericles (495-429 BC)
“Thinking is the talking of the soul with itself”
- Pericles was a prominent and influential Greek statesman, orator and general of Athens during the Golden Age;
- Pericles was a dominant figure during the period between the Persian Wars and the Peloponnesian War.
Hippocrates (460 BC – 377 BC.)
“Hippocrates: There is no big difference between philosophy and medicine”
- A Greek physician of the Age of Pericles and is considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine;
- He was regarded as the greatest physician of his time and the father of modern medicine;;
- He became known as the founder of Hippocratic Medical School at Cos;
- He was the founder of rational medicine which is based on observation of clinical signs and rational conclusions, without being influenced by any superstitions.
“Wherever the art of medicine is loved, there is also a love of humanity.”
Solon (640 BC – 558 BC)
- Solon was an Athenian statesman, lawmaker and poet;
- Solon traveled to many countries, studying foreign cultures and laws, that helped him to contribute in the economic recovery of his homeland;
- He wrote poetry for pleasure, as patriotic propaganda and in defence of his constitutional reforms (political elegies).
“No one can be said to be happy until he is dead”.
Archimedes (287 BC – 212 BC)
“Give me somewhere to stand, and I will move the earth.”
- Archimedes of Syracuse was a Greek mathematician, physicist, engineer, inventor, and astronomer of Classical Antiquity;
- He is most famous for discovering the law of hydrostatics, sometimes known as ‘Archimedes’ principle’, stating that a body immersed in fluid loses weight equal to the weight of the amount of fluid it displaces. Archimedes is supposed to have made this discovery when stepping into his bath, causing him to exclaim ‘Eureka!’; he studied on statics and the law of the levier, the method of exhaustion and he created an algorithm for calculating the number “π” (one of the fundamental constants of mathematics;
- The origin of the screw propeller starts with Archimedes, who used a screw to lift water for irrigation and bailing boats, so famously that it became known as Archimedes’ screw. It was probably an application of spiral movement in space (spirals were a special study of Archimedes) to a hollow segmented water-wheel used for irrigation by Egyptians for centuries.
“The shortest distance between two points is a straight line.”
C.P. Cavafis (1863- 1933)
- He was one of the most important contemporary Greek poets;
- He wrote historical, erotic and philosophical poems.
“When you set sail for Ithaca, wish for the road to be long, full of adventures, full of knowledge…”
Kazantzakis (1883 –1957)
- Kazantzakis was a writer, journalist, statesman, musician, poet and philosopher;
- Kazantzakis was not always liked by the public;
- Kazantzakis has produced lyric poetry, philosophic essays, travel books, tragedies, and modern Greek translations of such classics as Dante’s Divine Comedy and Goethe’s Faust; he has also produced historic books, school books, books for children, novels for children, vocabularies, articles, travel journals and several reviews.
“I hope for nothing. I fear nothing. I am free…”
Sophocles (496 BC- 406 BC)
“No one can take an oath for anything and the second opinion disproves the first one.”
- Sophocles was an ancient Greek tragedian;
- He was Sophocles the most celebrated playwright in the dramatic competitions;
- The most famous tragedies of Sophocles feature Oedipus, Antigone and Electra;
- Throughout all of Sophocles plays, he shows the fight of the individual against the will of the gods.
“Despair often breeds disease…”
Euripides (480 BC – 406 BC)
“If I had succeeded in life, they would surely place me among the wise men, for all who succeeded call them wise men.”
- Euripides was a tragedian of classical Athens;
- He was one of the three ancient Greek tragedians of Classical Athens for whom a significant number of plays have survived;
- Euripides composed tragedies and tetralogies;
- He took part in in the dramatic competitions.
“Question everything. Learn something. Answer nothing.”
Aristophanes (445 BC – 386 BC)
“Death is the only power that despises gifts.”
- Aristophanes is the greatest representative of ancient Greek comedy in the city-state of Athens;
- His work was characterized by bold fantasy, merciless invective and outrageous satire, unabashedly licentious humour, and a marked freedom of political criticism;
- Among his surviving plays are: “the Acharnanians”, the Clouds”, “the Wasps”, “Peace”, “the Birds”, “Lysistrata”, etc.
“Wise people, even though all laws were abolished, would still lead the same life.”
Pythagoras (580 BC – 496 BC)
“The art of living a happy life is in living in the present.”
- Greek philosopher and mathematician;
- He formulated the Phythagorian Theorem (geometry);
- He considered the numbers as the essence of the universe (Number is the ruler of forms and ideas, and the cause of gods and daemons)
- He was the founder of the “Pythagorean School”;
- He regarded the planets as celestial beings… he believed that planets were deities;
- He believed that Earth rotates around its axis and around the Sun;
- He invented the diatonic climax, in music.
“Friends are as companions on a journey, who ought to aid each other to persevere in the road to a happier life.”
Thucydides (460 BC – 399 BC)
“The first task of the historian is to seek the truth with persistence and perseverance.”
- Thucydides was an Athenian historian and general;
- He wrote the History of the Peloponnesian War;
- Thucydides wrote an account about events that took place up to the Peloponnesian War.
“The secret to happiness is freedom… And the secret to freedom is courage.”
Empedocles (495 BC – 435 BC)
- Empedocles was a Greek pre-Socratic philosopher and a citizen of Akragas, a Greek city in Sicily.
- He was physicist, engineer, inventor, physician, shaman, musician and poet.
- Empedocles believed the world to be made up of the four primary elements: earth, water, wind and fire which are interrelated.
- He believed everything in the universe was made of four elements, including living organisms. He also believed all matter, whether alive or not, was conscious.
- Rather mystically, he believed matter was held together by a fundamental force of the universe he described as Love and pushed apart by another force – Strife.
- Empedocles also speculated on the nature of human physiology. He believed that blood represented the most perfect intermingling of the four natural elements and that the heart was the center of the blood-vessel system. He therefore believed that the heart was the seat of life itself.
- In the area of astronomy, he knew that the moon shines by reflected light and thought that this is also true of the sun. He said that light takes time to travel, but so little time that, we cannot observe it. He knew that solar eclipses are caused by the interposition of the moon.
- He explained cosmic nature, the functions of the human body, and the activities of the soul as the result of the conflicting forces.
- He studied the reflection of the light and the nature of shadows.
“Nothing new comes or can come into being; the only change that can occur is a change in the arrangement of the elements.”
Democritus (460 BC – 370 BC)
“The world is a stage, life a passage. You came, you saw, you left”
- He is a pre-Socratic philosopher.
- Democritus taught that objects are formed of atoms that interact among themselves mechanically, in various manners including collision, attraction, repulsion, and spiral whirling, the latter resulting in the formation of bodies.
- He formulated the concept of the Milky Way Galaxy and referred to the existence of distant stars.
- Democritus was among the first to propose that the universe contains many worlds, some of them inhabited.
“Nothing exists except atoms and empty space; everything else is opinion.”
Thales of Miletus (640 or 624 BC – 546 BC)
“There are three attributes for which I am grateful to Fortune: that I was born, first, human and not animal; second, man and not woman; and third, Greek and not barbarian.”
- He was the oldest philosopher.
- He was the first pre-Socratic Greek philosopher
- He was also a mathematician, a physician, an astronomer, an engineer and a meteorologist.
- He was from Miletus, in Asia Minor and he was called Thales of Miletus..
- He founded the Ionian School in Miletus.
- According to Bertrand Russell, he is considered to be the first philosopher of the Western Philosophy.
- He used science, logic, physical sciences and astrology in order to perceive the world, the universe and the physical phenomena.
- Thales is recognized for breaking from the use of mythology and religious beliefs to explain the world and the universe.
- He discovered that the Moon does not have its own light; he also discovered static electricity and magnetism.
- He was a pioneer of Geometry, by formulating theories that:
- any angle inscribed in a semicircle is a right angle. This is known as Thales’ Theorem;
- a circle is bisected by its diameter;
- if two straight lines intersect, the opposite angles formed are equal;
- angles at the base of any isosceles triangle are equal;
- If one triangle has two angles and one side equal to another triangle, the two triangles are equal in all respects (Criterion of congruent triangles).
- the angle inscribed inside a semicircle is a right angle
“The most difficult thing in life is to know yourself.”
Twenty great people… Twenty names of personalities that are still remembered by people…. Twenty ancient Greek personalities, each one of them with its own particular features that provide hope and knowledge to mankind..
If you want to know what personality category you are classified in, follow the link below and do the personality test!
More information about
Would you like to learn more about topics of the personalities? Then please check out the links right down below:
- what is personality?
- Theories of personality development
- Personality alphabet
- Personality Development
- Codes of Personality
- Personality Types in the General Population
- 200 Influential Personalities of all time
- What colours could reveal about out personality?
- Personality and body language
200 Influential Personalities of all time
It is not easy for someone to decide if someone else is a remarkable or an exceptional individual or not. It is not easy to count up the significant, remarkable or exceptional people throughout the history of mankind. Someone may be missing… Someone may slip our mind… Someone may be added in the list later on…. Let’s face it…. Whether a personality is important or exceptional or not is a matter of opinion. Someone who is an exceptional, a remarkable person for me, may mean nothing for you… However, there are personalities that, whether you like it or not, are familiar to you… You know these people, even though you may have not met them and you that you are not going to meet the. They are usually people of the past that even future generations will keep in their memory. They are great people who have left their mark on the world making their names memorable. They are personalities who stood out, reversed the course of life, making either a positive impact or a negative one, people who tried to guide others leading them on to innovative paths.
Many previous studies tried to classify such personalities who have had a huge impact on people’s lives and affected their memories greatly. These personalities were people who were born in order to change the course of mankind, rebels full of hope for the future, researchers who worked hard in order to contribute greatly to the evolution of mankind. Personalities who were leaders, affected other peoples’ lives and they will be remembered over time. They were people who have shared their knowledge with us for a better future. Listed below are the top 200 personalities in the history of mankind, who have made either a positive or a negative impact on peoples’ lives; these people are worth being listed in this ranking as they made us realize what is right or wrong, what is good or bad. It’s a random ranking, without any rating scales.
|NAME||DATE OF BIRTH||DATE OF DEATH||QUOTE||OCCUPATION|
|John Locke||1632||1704||“All mankind… being all equal and independent, no one ought to harm another in his life, health, liberty or possessions.”||philosopher|
|Johannes Calvin||1509||1564||“However many blessings we expect from God, His infinite liberality will always exceed all our wishes and our thoughts.”||theologian, pastor and reformer|
|Grover Cleveland||1837||1908||“A government for the people must depend for its success on the intelligence, the morality, the justice, and the interest of the people themselves.”
|Otto Von Bismarck||1815||1898||“Anyone who has ever looked into the glazed eyes of a soldier dying on the battlefield will think hard before starting a war.”||statesman|
|Dante Alighieri||1265||1321||“Three things have remained outside paradies: stars, flowers and children.”||Poet|
|Jeanne d’ Arc||1412||1431||“One life is all we have and we live it as we believe in living it. But to sacrifice what you are and to live without belief, that is a fate more terrible than dying.”||Heroine|
|Harry S. Truman||1884||1972||“Men make history and not the other way around. In periods where there is no leadership, society stands still. Progress occurs when courageous, skillful leaders seize the opportunity to change things for the better.”||president|
|1856||1943||“Let the future tell the truth, and evaluate each one according to his work and accomplishments. The present is theirs; the future, for which I have really worked, is mine.”||Inventor, engineer, physicist, futurist|
|George Washington||1732||1799||It is far better to be alone, than to be in bad company.||president|
|Abraham Lincoln||1809||1865||Nearly all men can stand adversity, but if you want to test a man’s character, give him power.||president|
|Alexander the Great||356v.Chr||322v.Chr||I am not afraid of an army of lions led by a sheep; I am afraid of an army of sheep led by a lion.||king|
|Aristoteles||384v.Chr||322v.Chr||“It is during our darkest moments that we must focus to see the light.”||Philosopher, scientist|
|Adolf Hitler||1889||1945||The leader of genius must have the ability to make different opponents appear as if they belonged to one category.||Politician, leader|
|Plato||/||/||Wise men speak because they have something to say; Fools because they have to say something.||Philosopher, founder|
|Mohammad Ali||573||632||He who is not courageous enough to take risks will accomplish nothing in life.||Boxer, activist|
|William Shakespeare||1564||1616||We know what we are, but know not what we may be.||poet, playwright, actor|
|Napoleon Bonaparte||1769||1821||Death is nothing, but to live defeated and inglorious is to die daily.||statesman and military leader|
|Jesus||4BC||31 c. AD||And know that I am with you always; yes, to the end of time.||leader|
|Socrates||470 BC||399 BC||The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing.||philosopher|
|Leonardo Da Vinci||1452||1519||Tears come from the heart and not from the brain.||artist|
|Confucius||551 BC||479 BC||It does not matter how slowly you go as long as you do not stop.||philosopher|
|Pythagoras||582 BC||497 BC||Silence is better than unmeaning words.||mathematician|
|Harry S. Truman||1884||1972||It is amazing what you can accomplish if you do not care who gets the credit.||president|
|Rene Descartes||1596||1650||It is not enough to have a good mind; the main thing is to use it well.||mathematician|
|Pole Johannes||/||/||Once you see results, it becomes an addiction.|
|Thomas von Aquin||1225||1274||There is nothing on this earth more to be prized than true friendship.||theologian|
|Ali Ibn Abi Talib||600||661||A poor man is like a foreigner in his own country.||Clergyman|
|Johann Wolfgang von Goethe||1749||1832||The soul that sees beauty may sometimes walk alone.||poet|
|Philipp II. (Spain)||1527||1598||“God, who has given me so many Kingdoms to govern, has not given me a son fit to govern them.”||King|
|Michelangelo||1475||1564||The true work of art is but a shadow of the divine perfection.||artist|
|Ludwig XVI. (France)||1754||1793||I have no intention of sharing my authority.||king|
|Richard Nixon||1913||1994||If you take no risks, you will suffer no defeats. But if you take no risks, you win no victories.||president|
|Francis Bacon||1561||1626||In order for the light to shine so brightly, the darkness must be present.||philosopher|
|Jean-Jacques Rousseau||1712||1778||The world of reality has its limits; the world of imagination is boundless.||philopopher|
|Cicero||106v.Chr||43v.Chr||The life of the dead is placed in the memory of the living.||statesman|
|Charles II||1630||1685||I always admired virtue – but I could never imitate it.||royalty|
|Oscar Wilde||1854||1900||Keep love in your heart. A life without it is like a sunless garden when the flowers are dead.||dramatist|
|Robert Edward Lee||1807||1870||Never do a wrong thing to make a friend or to keep one.||soldier|
|Wladimir Lenin||1870||1924||A lie told often enough becomes the truth.||leader|
|Nikolaus Copernikus||1473||1543||To know that we know what we know, and to know that we do not know what we do not know, that is true knowledge.||scientist|
|Vincent Van Gogh||1853||1890||I put my heart and my soul into my work, and have lost my mind in the process.||artist|
|Augustinus von Hippo||354||430||The world is a book, and those who do not travel read only a page.||saint|
|John F. Kennedy||1917||1963||Leadership and learning are indispensable to each other.||president|
|Elvis Presley||1935||1977||I’m not trying to be sexy. It’s just my way of expressing myself when I move around.||musician|
|Andrew Jackson||1767||1845||Heaven will be no heaven to me if I do not meet my wife there.||president|
|Voltaire||1694||1778||God gave us the gift of life; it is up to us to give ourselves the gift of living well.||writer|
|Peter Tschaikowski||1840||1893||Where the heart does not enter; there can be no music.||composer|
|Richard Wagner||1813||1883||I am fond of them, of the inferior beings of the abyss, of those who are full of longing.||composer|
|John Adams||1735||1826||I must study politics and war that my sons may have liberty to study mathematics and philosophy.||president|
|James Cook||1728||1779||Do just once what others say you can’t do, and you will never pay attention to their limitations again.||explorer|
|Immanuel Kant||1724||1804||Science is organized knowledge. Wisdom is organized life.||philosopher|
|Georg III. (Great Britain-Irland)||1738||1820||Everyone who does not agree with me is a traitor and a scoundrel.||president|
|Adam Smith||1723||1790||Science is the great antidote to the poison of enthusiasm and superstition.||economist|
|Joseph Smith Jr.||1805||1844||An angel of God never has wings.||clergyman|
|Edgar Allan Poe||1809||1849||All that we see or seem is but a dream within a dream.||poet|
|Mark Twain||1835||1910||The secret of getting ahead is getting started.||author|
|Siddhartha Gautama||563v.Chr||483v.Chr||“However many holy words you read, however many you speak, what good will they do you if you do not act on upon them?”||teacher|
|James Madison||1751||1836||Liberty may be endangered by the abuse of liberty, but also by the abuse of power.||president|
|Oliver Cromwell||1599||1658||He who stops being better stops being good.||soldier|
|Galileo Galilei||1564||1642||We cannot teach people anything; we can only help them discover it within themselves.||scientist|
|Johann Sebastian Bach||1685||1750||The aim and final end of all music should be none other than the glory of God and the refreshment of the soul.||composer|
|Woodrow Wilson||1856||1924||The man who is swimming against the stream knows the strength of it.||president|
|Mahatma Gandhi||1869||1948||A man is but the product of his thoughts what he thinks, he becomes.||leader|
|Alexander Hamilton||1757||1804||I never expect to see a perfect work from an imperfect man.||politician|
|Sigmund Freud||1856||1939||Flowers are restful to look at. They have neither emotions nor conflicts.||psychologist|
|Franklin Roosevelt||1882||1945||There are many ways of going forward, but only one way of standing still.||president|
|Friedrich Nietzsche||1844||1900||It is not a lack of love, but a lack of friendship that makes unhappy marriages.||philosopher|
|Jakob I. (England)||1566||1625||The sour quality is set opposite to the bitter and the sweet, and is a good temper to all, a refreshing and cooling when the bitter and the sweet qualities are too much elevated or too preponderant.||theologian|
|Thomas Alva Edison||1847||1931||I have not failed. I’ve just found 10,000 ways that won’t work.||inventor|
|Dschingis Khan||1155||1227||The Greatest Happiness is to scatter your enemy and drive him before you. To see his cities reduced to ashes. To see those who love him shrouded and in tears. And to gather to your bosom his wives and daughters.||Band|
|Winston Churchill||1874||1965||Success is not final, failure is not fatal: it is the courage to continue that counts.||Statesman|
|George W. Bush||1946||Alive||Leadership to me means duty, honor, country. It means character, and it means listening from time to time.||president|
|Benjamin Franklin||1706||1790||An investment in knowledge pays the best interest.||politician|
|Charles Dickens||1812||1870||There are dark shadows on the earth, but its lights are stronger in the contrast.||novelist|
|Ronald Reagan||1911||2004||Peace is not absence of conflict, it is the ability to handle conflict by peaceful means.||president|
|Carl von Linne||1707||1778||If you do not know the names of things, the knowledge of them is lost, too.||botanist, physician and zoologist|
|Augustus||63v.Chr.||14n.Chr.||I found Rome a city of bricks and left it a city of marble.||royalty|
|Leonardo da Vinci||1452||1519||Tears come from the heart and not from the brain.||artist|
|Ulysses S. Grant||1822||1885||My failures have been errors in judgment, not of intent.||president|
|Ludwig van Beethoven||1770||1827||Music is a higher revelation than all wisdom and philosophy.||composer|
|Ludwig XIV. (France)||1638||1715||First feelings are always the most natural.||royalty|
|Platon||428v.Chr||348v.Chr||Wise men speak because they have something to say; Fools because they have to say something.||philosopher|
|Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart||1756||1791||I pay no attention whatever to anybody’s praise or blame. I simply follow my own feelings.||musician|
|Theodore Roosevelt||1858||1919||Believe you can and you’re halfway there.||president|
|Isaac Newton||1642||1727||If I have seen further than others, it is by standing upon the shoulders of giants.||mathematician|
|Christoph Columbus||1451||1506||Following the light of the sun, we left the Old World.||explorer|
|Albert Einstein||1879||1955||Look deep into nature, and then you will understand everything better.||physicist|
|Josef Stalin||1878||1953||Death is the solution to all problems. No man – no problem.||leader|
|Martin Luther||1483||1546||Let the wife make the husband glad to come home, and let him make her sorry to see him leave.||leader|
|Queen Victoria||1819||1901||Great events make me quiet and calm; it is only trifles that irritate my nerves.||royalty|
|Gaius Iulius Caser||100v.Chr||44v.Chr||Experience is the teacher of all things.||leader|
|Karl Marx||1818||1883||The production of too many useful things results in too many useless people.||philosopher|
|Queen Elisabeth I.||1533||1603||A clear and innocent conscience fears nothing.||royalty|
|Charles Darwin||1809||1882||A man who dares to waste one hour of time has not discovered the value of life.||scientist|
|Heinrich VIII. (England)||1491||1547||“Of all losses, time is the most irrecuperable for it can never be redeemed.”||royalty|
|Thomas Jefferson||1743||1826||Honesty is the first chapter in the book of wisdom.||president|
|Buddha||563 BC||483 BC||No one saves us but ourselves. No one can and no one may. We ourselves must walk the path.||leader|
|Homer||/||/||A sympathetic friend can be quite as dear as a brother.||poet|
|Werner Heisenberg||1901||1976||“Not only is the Universe stranger than we think, it is stranger than we can think.”||Physicist|
|Albrecht Durer||1471||1528||If a man devotes himself to art, much evil is avoided that happens otherwise if one is idle.||Artist|
|Voltaire||1694||1778||God gave us the gift of life; it is up to us to give ourselves the gift of living well.||writer|
|Marie Curie||1867||1934||Nothing in life is to be feared, it is only to be understood. Now is the time to understand more, so that we may fear less.||scientist|
|James Watt||1736||1819||“An iron railroad would be a cheaper thing than a road of the common construction.” Here lay in a few words the idea from which our railway system has sprung.”||inventor, mechanical engineer, and chemist|
|Johannes Gutenberg||1400||1468||“It is a press, certainly, but a press from which shall flow in inexhaustible streams…Through it, God will spread His Word. A spring of truth shall flow from it: like a new star it shall scatter the darkness of ignorance, and cause a light heretofore unknown to shine amongst men”||blacksmith, goldsmith, printer, and publisher|
|Max Planck||1858||1947||Ego is the immediate dictate of human consciousness.||scientist|
|Archimedes||287 BC||212 BC||Give me a lever long enough and a fulcrum on which to place it, and I shall move the world.||Mathematician|
|Orville Wright||1871||1948||The airplane stays up because it doesn’t have the time to fall.||Inventor|
|Michael Faraday||1791||1867||“Nothing is too wonderful to be true if it be consistent with the laws of nature.”||scientist|
|Georges Braque||1882||1963||Painting is a nail to which I fasten my ideas.||artist|
|Franz von Assisi||1182||1226||Start by doing what’s necessary; then do what’s possible; and suddenly you are doing the impossible.||saint|
|Alexander Graham Bell||1847||1922||Before anything else, preparation is the key to success.||inventor|
|Julius Caesar||100BC||44 BC||No one is so brave that he is not disturbed by something unexpected||leader|
|Lorenzo de’ Medici||1492||1519||“What I have dreamed in an hour is worth more than what you have done in four.”||statesman|
|Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen||1845||1923||Great discoveries are made accidentally less often than the populace likes to think.||engineer and physicist|
|Robert Koch||1843||1910||The pure culture is the foundation for all research on infectious disease.||physician and microbiologist|
|Michail Gorbatschow||1931||alive||The world will not accept dictatorship or domination.||politician|
|Demokritos||460 BC||370 BC||Happiness resides not in possessions, and not in gold, happiness dwells in the soul.||philosopher|
|Gagarin||1934||1968||I could have gone on flying through space forever.||Astronaut|
|Kemal Atatürk||1881||1938||My people are going to learn the principles of democracy, the dictates of truth and the teachings of science. Superstition must go.||leader|
|Pablo Picasso||1881||1973||The purpose of art is washing the dust of daily life off our souls.||artist|
|Mao Zedong||1893||1976||Politics is war without bloodshed while war is politics with bloodshed.||leader|
|Cleopatra||68 BC||30 BC||All strange and terrible events are welcome, but comforts we despise||royalty|
|Niels Bohr||1885||1962||Your theory is crazy, but it’s not crazy enough to be true.||physicist|
|Alexander Fleming||1881||1955||One sometimes finds what one is not looking for.||scientist|
|Ludwig Boltzmann||1844||1906||Bring forth what is true; Write it so it it’s clear. Defend it to your last breath.||Physicist, philosopher|
|Hippokrates||460 BC||357 BC||Healing is a matter of time, but it is sometimes also a matter of opportunity.||scientist|
|Hammurabi||1810 BC||1750 BC||The first duty of government is to protect the powerless from the powerful.”||king|
|Johannes Kepler||1571||1630||Truth is the daughter of time, and I feel no shame in being her midwife.||scientist|
|Guglielmo Marconi||1874||1937||Every day sees humanity more victorious in the struggle with space and time.||scientist|
|Che Guevara||1928||1967||The revolution is not an apple that falls when it is ripe. You have to make it fall.||revolutionary|
|Laozi||/||/||The journey of a thousand miles begins with one step||philosopher|
|Salvador Dali||1904||1989||The thermometer of success is merely the jealousy of the malcontents.||artist|
|Siegmund Freud||1856||1939||Flowers are restful to look at. They have neither emotions nor conflicts.||psychologist|
|Giuseppe Garibaldi||1807||1882||We shall meet again before long to march to new triumphs.||soldier|
|Gottlieb Daimler||1834||1900||“ The best or nothing at all. ”||engineer,
designer and industrialist
|Steve Jobs||1955||2011||Great things in business are never done by one person. They’re done by a team of people.||entrepreneur, business magnate, inventor, designer|
|Bill Gates||1955||/||Success is a lousy teacher. It seduces smart people into thinking they can’t lose.||businessman|
|Alfred Nobel||1833||1986||Contentment is the only real wealth.||scientist|
|Manfred von Ardenne||1907||1997||“Success flourishes only in perseverance — ceaseless, restless perseverance.”||physicist|
|Rembrandt||1606||1669||Practice what you know, and it will help to make clear what now you do not know.||painter|
|Henry Ford||1863||1947||Coming together is a beginning; keeping together is progress; working together is success.||businessman|
|Louis Pasteur||1822||1895||Science knows no country, because knowledge belongs to humanity, and is the torch which illuminates the world.||scientist|
|Gerhard Richter||1932||/||Good art in general aspires to something, as a good painting aspires to something, almost spiritual or holy.||artist|
|Niccolò Machiavelli||1469||1527||It is better to be feared than loved, if you cannot be both.||writer|
|Neil Armstrong||1930||2012||That’s one small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind.||astronaut|
|Nelson Mandela||1918||2013||Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world.||statesman|
|Carl Jung||1875||1961||Everything that irritates us about others can lead us to an understanding of ourselves.||psychologist|
|Samuel Jackson||1948||/||If you have an opportunity to use your voice you should use it.||actor|
|Mikhail Gorbachev||1931||/||The world will not accept dictatorship or domination.||statesman|
|Simon Bolivar||1783||1830||Judgement comes from experience, and experience comes from bad judgement||revolutionary|
|Akbar||1542||1605||A monarch should be ever intent on conquest, lest his neighbours rise in arms against him.||royalty|
|Konrad Adenauer||1876||1967||History is the sum total of things that could have been avoided.||statesman|
|Jawaharlal Nehru||1889||1964||What we really are matters more than what other people think of us.||leader|
|Charlemagne||742||814||To have another language is to possess a second soul.||royalty|
|Sir Walter Raleigh||1552||1618||Fain would I climb, yet fear I to fall.||explorer|
|Guru Nanak||1469||1539||From its brilliancy everything is illuminated.||philosopher|
|Leo Tolstoy||1828||1910||The two most powerful warriors are patience and time.||novelist|
|Ataturk||1881||1938||Everything we see in the world is the creative work of women.||leader|
|Margaret Thatcher||1925||2013||If you want something said, ask a man; if you want something done, ask a woman.||leader|
|Boris Yeltsin||1931||2007||You can build a throne with bayonets, but you can’t sit on it for long.||statesman|
|Indira Gandhi||1917||1984||Forgiveness is a virtue of the brave.||statesman|
|William Tyndale||1494||1536||No more doth it hurt to say that the body and blood are not in the sacrament.||clergyman|
|Tim Berners Lee||1955||Alive||We need diversity of thought in the world to face the new challenges.||inventor|
|Rosa Parks||1913||2005||Memories of our lives, of our works and our deeds will continue in others.||activist|
|Dalai Lama||1938||Be kind whenever possible. It is always possible.||leader|
|Malcolm X||1925||1965||Education is the passport to the future, for tomorrow belongs to those who prepare for it today.||activist|
|Charles de Gaulle||1890||1970||The better I get to know men, the more I find myself loving dogs.||leader|
|Mother Teresa||1910||1997||Let us always meet each other with smile, for the smile is the beginning of love.||saint|
|Bill Gates||1955||Alive||Success is a lousy teacher. It seduces smart people into thinking they can’t lose.||businessman|
|Ernest Hemingway||1899||1961||The best way to find out if you can trust somebody is to trust them.||novelist|
|John Lennon||1940||1980||Love is the answer, and you know that for sure; Love is a flower, you’ve got to let it grow.||musician|
|John M Keynes||1883||1946||Ideas shape the course of history.||economist|
|Susan B. Anthony||1820||1906||Men, their rights, and nothing more; women, their rights, and nothing less.||activist|
|George Orwell||1903||1950||War is peace. Freedom is slavery. Ignorance is strength.||author|
|Thomas Edison||1847||1931||Opportunity is missed by most people because it is dressed in overalls and looks like work.||inventor|
|Kofi Annan||1938||Knowledge is power. Information is liberating. Education is the premise of progress, in every society, in every family.||statesman|
|William Wilberforce||1759||1833||Of all things, guard against neglecting God in the secret place of prayer.||politician|
|Evia Peron||1919||1952||Shadows cannot see themselves in the mirror of the sun.||statesman|
|Princess Diana||1961||1997||Family is the most important thing in the world.||royalty|
|Helen Keller||1880||1968||Optimism is the faith that leads to achievement. Nothing can be done without hope and confidence.||author|
|Florence Nightingale||1820||1910||How very little can be done under the spirit of fear.||activist|
|Harriet Tubman||1822||1913||Never wound a snake; kill it.||activist|
|Anne Frank||1929||1945||Think of all the beauty still left around you and be happy.||writer|
|Sri Chinmoy||1931||2007||Smile, smile, smile at your mind as often as possible. Your smiling will considerably reduce your mind’s tearing tension.||author|
|Desmond Tutu||1931||You don’t choose your family. They are God’s gift to you, as you are to them.||author|
|Jesse Owens||1913||1980||One chance is all you need.||athlete|
|Rosa Parks||1913||2005||Memories of our lives, of our works and our deeds will continue in others.||activist|
|Amelia Earhart||1897||1939||The most effective way to do it, is to do it.||author|
|Barack Obama||1961||Still alive||Money is not the only answer, but it makes a difference.||politician|
|Marco Polo||1254||1324||I did not write half of what I saw, for I knew I would not be believed||merchant|
|Vasco da Gama||1469||1524||I am not afraid of the darkness. Real death is preferable to a life without living.||explorer|
|Ferdinand Magellan||1480||1521||Go forth to meet the shadowy future without fear and with a manly heart.||explorer|
|Marie Antoinette||1755||1793||There is nothing new except what has been forgotten.||royalty|
|Coco Chanel||1883||1971||A girl should be two things: classy and fabulous.||designer|
|Marlene Dietrich||1901||1992||Once a woman has forgiven her man, she must not reheat his sins for breakfast.||actress|
|Katharine Hepburn||1907||2003||If you obey all the rules you miss all the fun.||actress|
|Marilyn Monroe||1926||1962||I restore myself when I’m alone.||actress|
|Bob Marley||1945||1981||One good thing about music, when it hits you, you feel no pain.||musician|
|Michael Jackson||1958||2009||My mother’s wonderful. To me she’s perfection.||musician|
|Bruce Lee||1940||1973||Knowledge will give you power, but character respect.||actor|
|Tupac||1971||1996||I don’t have no fear of death. My only fear is coming back reincarnated.||musician|
|Michael Jordan||1963||/||Talent wins games, but teamwork and intelligence wins championships.||athlete|
|Maya Angelou||1928||2014||If you have only one smile in you give it to the people you love.||poet|
Remarkable personalities, strong personalities… Do you really know yourself? Do you know who you are and what are your personality traits? Can you change WHAT you are? Can you change WHO you are? So, learn yourself better and use this knowledge in order to have a better and more positive and advantageous life. This information is the key to understanding behaviors and, eventually, to the importance of personality formation and development.
If you want to know what personality category you are classified in, follow the link below and do the personality test.
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